Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <h3>About Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</h3> <p><strong><a style="color: #006990;" title="American Medical Journal" href="/index.php/" target="_self">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</a></strong> is a quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry. <img style="float: left; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px;" src="/public/site/images/nasseer/image_cover.jpg" alt="" width="168" height="211">University of Baghdad dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge and information on all sciences relevant to dentistry and to the oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease. The entire archive back to 2005 is available online and articles are available free online their official publication.The journal does not accept any advertising but you will find postings for faculty positions. Additionally, the journal also does not rent, sell or otherwise allow its subscriber list to be used by any other entity. We seeks organizations interested in supporting unbiased research and educational practices. Learn more about opportunities to align your organization with this important initiative.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="">Current Issue Available Vol. 29 No.&nbsp;4</a></p> <h3>&nbsp;</h3> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instructions for Authors</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Licenses and Copyright</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publication ethics</a></p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> College of dentistry/ University of baghdad en-US Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 1680-0087 <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol> <li>JBCD applies the&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license&nbsp;to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content&nbsp;as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</li> <li>If you have written permission to do so, yes. If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. 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Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper.&nbsp;Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always&nbsp;give proper attribution.</li> <li>If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</li> <li>JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</li> </ol> The Effect of Different Pouring Interval of Conventional Impression on the Marginal Accuracy of Full Contour Zirconia Crowns in Comparison with Digital Impression (An in vitro study) Background: The success and maintenance of indirect dental restorations is closely related to the marginal accuracy, which is affected by many factors like preparation design, using of different fabrication techniques, and the time of taking final impression and pouring it. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different pouring time of conventional impression on the vertical marginal gap of full contour zirconia crowns in comparison with digital impression technique. Materials and Methods: Forty sound recently extracted human permanent maxillary first premolar teeth of comparable size and shape were collected. Standardized preparation of all teeth samples were carried out to receive full contour zirconia crown restoration with deep chamfer finishing line all around the tooth with (1mm) depth, axial length (4mm) and convergence angle (6 degree). The specimens separated into two groups; Group A; eight specimens were scanned digitally by using Omnicam scanner; Group B; conventional impressions were taken for the remaining thirty two specimens and further subdivided to four groups according to the time of impression pouring; Group B1: PVS were poured after 30 minutes; Group B2: PVS were poured after 24 hours; Group B3: PVS were poured after 7 days; Group B4:PVS were poured after 14 days. Marginal discrepancy was measured at four points at each tooth surface. Sixteen points per tooth were measured using digital microscope at (180X) magnification. One-way ANOVA test and LSD test were carried out to see if there was any significant difference among the means of the conventional impression groups. Independent samples t-test was carried out to examine if there is any significant difference between digital and conventional impression technique. Results: group B2 had the least mean of marginal gap with statistically significant difference when compared to group B1 and statistically highly significant difference when compared to group B3 and B4. There was a statistically highly significant difference in the vertical marginal gap between digital impression technique and conventional impression. Conclusions: the pouring of conventional impression after 24 hours provides better marginal fit than other pouring time. The digital impression provides better marginal fit than conventional impression. Elaf A. Hadi Adel F Ibraheem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 1 6 10.12816/0042984 Effect of Polyamide (Nylon 6) Micro-Particles Incorporation into RTV Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer on Tear and Tensile Strength Background: The longevity of any prosthesis depends on the materials from which it was fabricated, that is why, defects in the material properties may reduce the service life of prosthesis and necessitate its replacement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of Polyamide-6 (Nylon-6) on the tear and tensile strength of A-2186 RTV silicone elastomer. Materials and Methods: 80 samples were fabricated by the addition of 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% by weight PA-6 micro-particles powder to A-2186 platinum RTV silicone elastomer. The study samples were divided into four (4) groups, each group containing 20 samples. One control group was prepared without PA-6 micro particles and three experimental groups were prepared with different percentage of PA-6 micro particles (1%, 3%, and 5%) by weight. Each group was further subdivided into 2 groups according to the conducted tests, i.e. tear and tensile strength tests (n=10). The data were analyzed with a descriptive statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA, post-hoc LSD test. Results: The mean value of tear and tensile strength of 1% PA-6 reinforcement group increased significantly when compared to control group on the contrast to the same values of 3% and 5% PA-6 reinforcement groups which were decreased significantly. Conclusion: the 1% PA-6 reinforcement improved tear as well as tensile strength among all other percentages (0%, 3% and 5%). Abdalbasit A. Fatihallah Manar E. Alsamaraay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 7 12 10.12816/0042985 In Vitro Comparative Assessment Of The Effect Of Gutta-Fusion Obturation On The Push Out Bond Strenght Of Three Types Of Sealers Background: The bond strength of the root canal sealers to dentin is very important property for maintaining the integrity and the seal of root canal filling. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the push-out bond strength of root filled with total fill Bioceramic, AH Plus and Gutta-flow®2 sealers using GuttaFusion®obturation system versus single cone obturation technique. Materials and method: sixty of mandibular premolars teeth with straight roots were used in this study, these roots were instrumented using Reciproc system, instrumentation were done with copious irrigation of 3 mL 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) during all the steps of preparation, and smear layer will be removed with 1 ml of 17% EDTA kept in the canal for 1 min, roots were randomly divided into two groups according to the obturation technique (thirty teeth for each group): Group I: Single Reciproc Gutta percha cone obturation technique, Group II: Gutta fusion obturation technique, then each group divided into three subgroup according to the type of sealer, AH subgroup: AH Plus sealer, BC subgroup: bioceramic sealer and GF subgroup: Gutta flow 2 sealer. The roots then stored in moist environment at 37°C for one week, the roots were embedded in clear acrylic resin and each root sectioned into three levels apical, middle and cervical. The bond strength was measured using computerized universal testing machine each section fixed in the machine so that the load applied from apical to cervical direction at 0.5mm/min. speed and the computer show the higher bond force before dislodgment of the filling material. These forces were divided by the surface area to obtain the bond strength in MPa. Results: Statistical analysis was performed and the result showed a highly significant differences between the three types of sealers when the same obturation technique were used, also there is highly significant differences between two groups with two different obturation technique. Conclusion: This study showed that the push out bond strength of AH plus sealer was higher than bioceramic sealer and Gutta flow 2 sealer respectively when the same obturation technique was used. The push out bond strength was affected by the obturation technique and Gutta fusion obturation technique showed higher bond strength than single cone obturation technique when the same type of sealer was used. Ahmed A Al-Qazwini Raghad A Al-Hashimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 13 19 10.12816/0042986 The Influence of Different Fabrication and Impression Techniques on the Marginal Adaptation of Lithium Disilicate Crowns (A comparative in vitro study) Background: The marginal adaptation has a key role in the success and longevity of the fixed dental restoration, which is affected by the impression and the fabrication techniques .The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the marginal fitness of lithium disilicate crowns using two different digital impression techniques (direct and indirect techniques) and two different fabrication techniques (CAD/CAM and Press techniques). Materials and Methods: Thirty two sound upper first premolar teeth of comparable size extracted for orthodontic reason were selected in this study .Standardized preparation of all teeth samples were carried out with modified dental surveyor to receive all ceramic crown restoration with 1 mm deep chamfer finishing line, 4 mm axial length and 6 degree convergence angle. Half of the teeth were duplicated and poured in type IV dental stone to have sixteen dies and then these dies and the remaining teeth divided in to two groups according to the type of digital impression techniques (n=16) as follow: Group A: Indirect digital impression technique scanned by inEos X5 camera; Group B: Direct digital impression technique scanned by CEREC AC Omnicam camera. Each group was subdivided according to the technique of fabrication into two subgroups (n=8): Press technique using IPS e-max press (A1, B1); CAD/CAM technique using IPS e-max CAD (A2, B2).Marginal gaps were evaluated on the prepared teeth at four defined points on each aspect using digital microscope at a magnification of (280X). One way ANOVA and LSD tests were used to identify and localize the source of difference among the groups. Results: The results showed that indirect digital impression with IPS e-max CAD/CAM group A2 revealed the poorest marginal integrity with (55.93 μm ± 3.300). Group B2 and group A1 were next in line with(44.49 μm ± 6.840 and 37.74 μm± 5.433) respectively, while in the first group of restorations, the result of 29.9 μm ± 5.534 obtained with direct digital impression with pressable ceramic was clearly better. Conclusions: All the tested digital impression techniques showed clinically acceptable accuracy and intraoral scanning with pressable ceramic significantly enhanced the marginal fit Shatha Saadallah Abdul Kareem J Al-Azzawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 20 26 10.12816/0042987 The Effect of Addition of Zirconium Nano Particles on Antifungal Activity and Some Properties of Soft Denture Lining Material Background Microorganisms and fungal growth especially Candida albicans, on soft denture lining material are the most common problem which can lead to chronic mucosal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zirconium nanoparticles into acrylic-based heat cured soft denture lining material against Candida albicans, and the amount of zirconium ion release of soft liner/ZrNPs composite. Furthermore, evaluate shear bond strength after ZrNPs addition to soft liner. Materials and methods: Zirconium nanoparticles were added into acrylic-based soft denture liner in various percentages (1%, and 1.5% by weight). Two hundred and fifty specimens were arranged and isolated into four groups as per the test to be done The antifungal activity of the soft liner/ZrNPs composite was assessed in three different periods by using two methods (viable count of C. albicans and disk-diffusion test). In two distinct periods, amount of zirconium released in artificial saliva was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Instron testing machine was used to test the shear bond strength of the soft liner to the acrylic denture base material. Results: A highly significant decrease in colony forming units of C. albicans in experimental groups (1% and 1.5%ZrNPs) contrast with control group. There was no inhibition zone around any specimen of any test group. In artificial saliva there was no zirconium distinguished to be released at any incubation period. There was a highly significant increase in the mean value of shear bonding strength after incorporation of ZrNPs at 1.5% percentage into soft liner. Conclusion: The addition of ZrNPs into acrylic-based soft denture lining material helps to provide soft denture liner with antifungal properties, thus reducing the susceptibility to develop denture-induced stomatitis. There is no zirconium has been detected at any incubation period and there is increased in the shear bond strength of the soft lining material. Alaa D Yasser Nabeel Abdul Fatah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 27 33 10.12816/0042988 The Effect of Insertion Rate on The Adaptability of Gutta-Percha and The Apical Extrusion of Thermoplasticized Gutta Percha Obturation Techniques. Background: In the Thermafil as a root canal obturation, system little is known about the effect that varying rates of insertion have on the adaptability of thermoplasticized GP and the amount of apical extrusion. Materials and methods: thirty simulated root canals were obturated with thermafil obturators and Apexit Plus sealer at three different insertion rates. The obturated canals were sectioned at three different levels, the sealer average film thickness for each section was calculated and the amount of apical extrusion for each canal was conducted. Results: the higher adaptability was seen with the faster insertion rate while the slower insertion rate showed fewer tendencies to cause apical extrusion. Conclusions: the intermediate insertion rate had the best results between the other two rates for both adaptability and apical extrusion. Samer Aun Thyab Al-Shimari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 34 36 10.12816/0042989 The Effect of Oral Contraceptive Pill on Cortical Thickness and Bone Mineral Density of The Mandibular Mental and Gonial Regions in Premenopausal Females Using Spiral Computed Tomography Background: Prolonged use of low-dose estrogen ''20 micrograms or less" Combined oral contraceptive pill (that have estrogen and progesterone steroid hormone) had an effect on bone turnover .Bone mineral density is used in clinical medicine as an indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. The aim of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low dose oral contraceptive pill on the cortical thickness (in millimeter) and bone mineral density at the mandibular cortex of mental and gonial regions in Hounsfield unit(HU) using spiral computed tomography. Material and method: This prospective study was conducted on computed tomographic image of 100 women aged between (20-40) years .The collected sample includes patients attended for different diagnostic purposes to AL-Shaheed Al-Seder Teaching General Hospital of Al-Najaf AL-Ashraf from Julay, 2015 to May 2016.Data were grouped into two categories :group (1)control group (don't use combined oral contraceptive pill) (n=50);group(2)women taking low dose(20microgram) combined oral contraceptive pill for more than 2 years,(n=50).Cortical thickness measured in millimeter and Bone Mineral Density measured in Hounsfield unit both in mental foramen and gonial angle regions .Physical activity number of parity type of lactation were documented by questionnaire. Result: There was a statically significant difference; in cortical thickness p=0.037 and bone mineral density P=0.007 in mental area between the two groups ;the lowest mean in group (2)and highest mean in group(1) . After adjustment for age ,number of parity, and physical activity measurement scores ,there was a significant difference p=0.001 in mean of bone mineral density and p=0.065 for cortical thickness of gonial angle between the two groups ;the highest mean in group (1) and lowest mean in group (2). CONCLUSION: Computed tomography is a good diagnostic method to measure the value of cortical thickness and bone mineral density simultaneously in mental and gonial region of the mandible in premenopausal female using low dose combined oral contraceptive pill which have small effect on bone ;depended on the woman's age and the duration of using the pill ;that did not appear until about two years of use. Israa K Farhood Ahlam A Fatah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 37 43 10.12816/0042990 Effectiveness of Intra articular Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patients with Anterior Disc Displacement with Reduction Background: Anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDWR) is the most common form of the internal derangement (ID) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). It is a painful progressive dysfunction and clinically characterized by reciprocal clicking due to shift in the disc anteriorly in relation to the condyle and fossa during mandible elevation. Minimally invasive therapy such as intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used. PRP is a natural autologous product with a high platelet concentration obtained by centrifugation process to enhance tissue healing through several growth factors (GFs), which are released after endogenous activation. The aim of this study is to assess this technique which is increasingly used today as a safe, simple modality. Materials and Methods: sixty patients with ADDWR were participated (Females 41, males 19; age 20-39 years). Patients were divided into two groups; PRP was used as study group and conservative therapy was used as control group. 1 ml of PRP was obtained by a single step centrifugation. Pain, joint sounds and maximum mouth opening were clinically evaluated before and two months after therapy. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in pain score, clicking and maximum mouth opening in patients treated with PRP. No complications were recorded immediately and two months after therapy. Conclusion: This study support the effectiveness of PRP injection in treatment of ADDWR as a safe modality in reducing pain, clicking and increase mouth opening. Farah T. Alhussien Ameena Ryhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 44 52 10.12816/0042991 Radiological Evaluation of The Anatomic Characteristic of Lingual Foramina and Their Vascular Canals in The Anterior Region of The Mandible Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Background: presence of lingual vascular foramina and canals in the interforaminal regionmay increase the risk ofsurgical complications during implant placement or any surgical procedure in this area.Aim of this study is the radiological evaluation of the anatomic characteristic of the lingual foramina and their vascular canals in the anterior of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods: Prospective study including 72 Iraqi subjects (31 male and 41 female) ranging from 20 to 59 years, all subjects attended AL- Sharaa dental clinic in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city, scanned with CBCT from September 2016 to February 2017. Using 3dimentional and sagittal cross section to detect lingual foramina and their vascular canals. Their presence, number, diameter, position, and orientation were established. Results: Lingual foramina in the anterior mandible were viewed in whole sample. Number of lingual canals varied from (1-5), the average diameter of the canals was (0.81 mm). The average distance from the foramina to the base of the mandible and to the alveolar crest was (13.78 mm) and (16.05mm), respectively. There was no significant correlation found between age and gender on all selected measurements. There was significant association of diameter of lingual foramen with the count, situation, extent and direction of lingual canal through the mandible width. Conclusion: Cone beam computed tomography is an invaluable system in diagnosis and treatment planning of surgical procedures. It help in detection of various anatomic features of mandible like presence of lingual foramen and canals in the anterior mandible. Fatima M Abd Al-khuther Ahlam A Fatah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 53 57 10.12816/0042992 Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Implant Stability Background: Preparation of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a simple, low cost and minimally invasive method to obtain a natural concentration of autologous growth factors that is widely used to accelerate soft and hard tissue healing, thus, PRF is used in different fields of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of local application PRF on stability of dental implants. Materials and methods: nineteen healthy patients with adequate alveolar bone with two or more adjacent missing teeth and/or bilaterally symmetric to the midline (split-mouth design) missing teeth participated in this study. Each patient received at least two dental implants (Dentium Co., Korea). After surgical preparation of the implant sockets, the PRF was applied randomly into one of the implant socket before the placement of implant fixture) study group), while the second implant was inserted without PRF (control group). The implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) using OsstellTM ISQ, at the time of surgery (primary stability), and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively (secondary stability). Results: Although in the three records of secondary stability, the mean implant stability quotient (ISQ) in the study group was higher compared to the control group, this elevation was statistically not significant (P value > 0.05). On the other hand, PRF showed a significant effect on implants stability by 2.367 folds for implants that achieved primary stability ≥ 70 and maintained this stability after 12 weeks. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, local application of PRF exhibited that there was no statistical beneficial effect on implant stability. No significant correlation was found between local bone density and implant stability in both groups. Amjed F Hussien Ali H Al-Hussaini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 58 64 10.12816/0042993 Determination of Implant Primary Stability: A Comparison of the Surgeon’s Tactile Sense and Objective Measurements Background: Evaluation and measurement of primary stability could be achieved by several methods, including the resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and implant insertion torque (IT) values. The need for a sufficient primary stability, guaranteed by an adequate insertion torque and implant stability quotient values, increased its importance mainly in one stage implants or in immediate loading protocols. The aims of this study was to find if there is a correlation between the peak insertion torque (PIT) and ISQ values of implants inserted in the jaws of different bone quality which regarded as two important clinical determinant factors for prediction of implant primary stability, and to evaluate and compare whether an experienced clinician could precisely predict the primary stability of an implant on insertion with different surgical procedures using his own tactile perception. Materials and methods: A total of (60) Iraqi adult patients, (28) males and (32) females, age ranged (22-66) years old were enrolled in this clinical prospective study. The maximum torque value recorded on implant insertion using calibrated manual torque ratchet adopting three categories: low (10 to 30 N/cm), medium (30 to 50 N/cm), and high insertion torque (50 to 70 N/cm). The oral surgeon was asked to indicate the perceived ISQs values according to his perception then Implant stability quotient were measured by Osstell ™. Bone density (type) was determined according to subjective bone resistance encountered while drilling as proposed by Lekohlm and Zarb. Results: A total of 160 implants were inserted. The mean peak IT value was 49 ± 2.61N/cm. The mean ISQ value was 71.7 ± 8.86. Statistical analysis show a significant correlation between ISQ values and PIT values (P<0.001) , between IT values and bone types and between perceived primary stability and actual primary stability (P<0.001) . Conclusions:The corresponding significant correlations between insertion torque, and ISQ values may help clinicians to predict primary stability on implant insertion, that may be associated with implant survival and success rates. A moderate reliability (correlation) between perceived ISQ values and those measured using RF analyzer(Ossttel device). Bakir G Murrad Jamal A Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 65 71 10.12816/0042994 Comparison of periodontal health status in relation to IQ in right- and left handed individuals Background: Periodontal disease (PD) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by destruction of supporting structures of the teeth. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was potentially reported to significantly associated with prevalence of gingivitis. Mild gingivitis was obtained in high IQ levels while moderate gingivitis may be attributed to poor oral hygiene seen among the subjects having low IQ levels. Method: One hundred volunteers aged between 20-45 years old were enrolled in this study, patients were equally divided into right- and left-handed (50 patients each)and each group then subdivided into patients with healthy gingiva(10), patients with gingivitis (20), and patients suffering from periodontitis (20).An IQ questionnaire was prepared to be answered by each patient, Periodontal health status was recorded by using clinical periodontal parameters, plaque index (PLI)and gingival index (GI). Results: Analysis of data showed that there is no significant difference in parameters measured in the same group. Results of IQ score among healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups indicated presence of significant difference (P≤0.001) between right- and left-handed as compare to healthy subjects, Furthermore, in left-handed patients, IQ score was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in gingivitis group in comparison to periodontitis patients. In contrast, same groups in right-handed patients showed almost the same IQ score. The same pattern was observed in association with plaque index. Conclusion: Left-handed individuals have higher potential in providing plaque control. However, IQ score did not affect oral hygiene level with increased severity of periodontal disease in both groups. Nada K. Imran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 72 75 10.12816/0042995 Measurement of serum Superoxide dismutase levels in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and chronic periodontitis ABSTRACT Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most important reproductive and endocrine disorders in women at reproductive age. It's associated with metabolic disorder, obesity, insulin resistance and oxidative stress chronic periodontitis and PCOS both of them associated with low chronic grade of inflammation. The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. Superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) is an important circulating marker and protecting enzyme helping the body tissues to get rid of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the tissue. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the levels of (SOD) among group of chronic periodontitis patients with PCOS, group of chronic periodontitis without PCOS and a third group who were systemically and periodontally healthy. Material and Method: This study consist of (60) women at reproductive age ranged between (25-40) years old. They divided into three groups Group I consist of 20 women systemically healthy and with healthy periodontium, group II consist of 20 women with chronic periodontitis and systemically healthy and Group III consist of 20 women with chronic periodontitis and (PCOS). We evaluated the periodontal health of the groups through measuring these important indices: Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. SOD antioxidant marker was measured colormeterically for the three groups. Results: this study showed higher means of periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss (1.275±0.246, 1.295±0.239, 0.24±0.16, 6.47±0.345, 4.125±0.328 respectively). Highly significant differences were found using t-test in inter group comparison. (P≤0.001) regarding pocket depth and clinical attachment loss .Higher mean of (SOD) level was found for G3 (137.72±29.769) U/mL . F-test was used for intragroup comparison and highly significant difference was found (P≤0.001). Positive but weak correlation where found among (SOD) level, bleeding on probing in Group I and Group II , also among (SOD) level, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. Conclusion: (PCOS) associated with oxidative stress and more prone to periodontal diseases with high level of antioxidant agent like (SOD) level to compensate the high level of (ROS) Ayser Najah Suzan A Salman Hadeel M Akram Maha A Ahmed Lubaba A Abdul Ameer Azza W Khairi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 76 81 10.12816/0042996 Oral health status among kindergarten children in Karbala city\Iraq Back ground: Dental caries and periodontal disease followed by enamel defect were the most common and widely spread diseases affecting children. Aim of this study is the assessment of the occurrence and severity of dental caries, dental plaque, gingivitis and enamel anomalies among 4-5 years old children in Karbala city-Iraq. Materials and methods: A sample of 658 children (350 males, 308 females) aged four and five years old was selected randomly from the fourteenth kindergartens in Karbala city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries and enamel anomalies were followed the criteria of WHO 1987, WHO1997 respectively. Dental plaque was assessed using plaque index of Silness and Loe,1964. Gingival health condition was assessed using gingival index of Loe and Silness, 1963. Results: : Caries prevalence was found to be 83% of the total sample. the mean rank value of dmfs was higher among boys in comparison to girls with statistically no significant difference(P>0.05). The value of dmfs increased with age with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01). Recording of this study demonstrated that 100% of children had dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The mean rank values of dental plaque and gingival indices for total boys were found to be higher than total girls with statistically highly significant differences (P<0.01). Positive highly significant correlations were recorded between dental caries with dental plaque and gingival indices. In general, the percentage of enamel anomalies was found to be (39.8%). The mean rank values of any type of enamel defect were found to be higher among boys than girls with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The most prevalent type of enamel defect was found to be hypoplasia followed by diffused opacities and then demarcated opacities. Conclusion: High prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis was recorded indicating the need of public and preventive programs among kindergarten children. Dhuha M Hassan Baydaa Hussien ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 82 88 10.12816/0042997 Dentition status in relation to nutritional condition among a group of intermediate school students in Al-Najaf city / Iraq Background: Nutrition can affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity as well as the progression of oral diseases such as dental caries which was the most predominant and wide spread not life threatening human diseases especially in developing countries as in Iraq. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence, prevalence and severity of dental caries condition and their relations to nutritional status among intermediate schools females in Al-Najaf city in Iraq. Materials and methods: This study was conducted among intermediate schools females aged 13, 14 and15 years old and the total sample consisted of 754 students. The assessment of nutritional status was performed using body mass index (BMI) following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart (2000). Diagnosis and recording of dental caries was according to the criteria of WHO 1987. Results: The percentage of well-nutrition was (96.2%) while the prevalence of malnutrition was (3.8%). Result showed that only 5.17% of the total sample was caries-free. The mean dmft for deciduous teeth was equal to (1.77±0.15) and dmfs (3.92±0.39), while concerning permanent teeth the mean DMFT was equal to (4.68±0.10) and DMFS (6.22±0.16), significant differences were seen between DMFT, DMFS and age while opposite was found with nutritional status, and no significant differences were seen between caries experience of primary teeth and age and this similar was found with nutritional status Conclusion: This study revealed that a higher prevalence of dental caries among well-nourished females students aged 13-15 years. Therefore, there is need for an improving public and school preventive programs, and encouraged to orient health knowledge in a positive direction. Noor M Hadi Laith Nadia A Al-Rawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 89 95 10.12816/0043003 Oral Health Condition and Nutritional Status among Cleft Lip and Palate in Baghdad-Iraq Background: Orofacial cleft is the most common craniofacial birth defect and the fourth most common congenital malformation in humans that have an effect on oral health in addition to nutrient intake affected in those children. This research aims to investigate gingival condition, dental caries experience and nutritional status among children with orofacial cleft and compare them with normal children. Materials and methods: The study group included 36 children with an age ranged (4-9) years of orofacial cleft. The control group included 37 children matched the control group in age and gender. Gingival condition measured by Gingival Index (Löe and Silness, 1963), while dental caries status was measured by (D1-4MFs/d1-4mfs) index according to the criteria of Manji et al (1989). The nutritional status was assessed using body mass index for age. Data analysis was conducted through the application of the SPSS (version 21). Results: The DMFs, dmfs and Ds mean values were higher in study group than control group with no statistically significant differences, while ds mean values were higher in study group than control group with highly significant difference. GI mean values were higher in study group than control group with statistically highly significant difference. No significant difference in body mass index between study and control groups. Concerning severity, the study group had more gingival inflammation severity than control group, while regarding dental cries severity only grades d1, d3 and d4 were significantly increased in study group than control group. Conclusion: The children with orofacial clefts had increased risk for dental caries and gingival inflammation than normal children. The nutritional status was not different between children with orofacial cleft and healthy children Mais M Almaeeni Abeer M Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 96 101 10.12816/0043004 Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized and non-institutionalized orphans in Baghdad city Background: Nutritional condition was reported as one of the factors affecting the oral health status, particularly among underprivileged groups. Orphans are one of the known high-risk groups. The aims of this study were to assess the nutritional status of orphans, and its impact on the oral health status. Materials and Methods: Five-hundred children aged 6-12 years old, 254 males and 246 females: institutionalized, non-institutionalized orphans and controls were participated in this study. Nutritional status assessed according to body mass index (BMI). Ramfjord index teeth were examined to assess oral cleanliness and gingival condition. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results this study revealed the institutionalized orphans with low mean value of BMI, significant differ than non-institutionalized orphans and highly significant than controls, whereas the non-institutionalized orphans was significantly differ than controls. Each of institutionalized and non-institutionalized orphans was with highly significant elevated mean plaque and gingival indices than control, while significant high mean rank calculus index for non-institutionalized orphans than each of institutionalized orphans and controls was found. According to BMI indicators of both orphan groups, it was found that thinness group among institutionalized orphans with significant elevated Mean Plaque Index; however, high non-significant values for Gingival and Calculus indices were found among thinness grades. Conclusion: This study reflected that nutritional status is a relative factor; may affect the oral cleanliness and gingival health. Moreover, oral hygiene and preventive care are mandatory, should be stressed through dental care programs Aseel M Abdul Majeed Zainab A Al Dahan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-15 2017-12-15 29 4 102 109 10.12816/0043005