Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd <h3>About Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</h3> <p><strong><a style="color: #006990;" title="American Medical Journal" href="/index.php/" target="_self">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</a></strong> is a quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry. <img style="float: left; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px;" src="/public/site/images/nasseer/image_cover.jpg" alt="" width="168" height="211">University of Baghdad dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge and information on all sciences relevant to dentistry and to the oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease. The entire archive back to 2005 is available online and articles are available free online their official publication.The journal does not accept any advertising but you will find postings for faculty positions. Additionally, the journal also does not rent, sell or otherwise allow its subscriber list to be used by any other entity. We seeks organizations interested in supporting unbiased research and educational practices. Learn more about opportunities to align your organization with this important initiative.</p> <p><a href="http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/issue/view/54" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/issue/view/74" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Issue Available Vol. 29 No.&nbsp;3</a></p> <h3>&nbsp;</h3> <h2><a title="Authors guidelines" href="http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/about/submissions" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong class="strongred">Author's guidelines</strong></a></h2> <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="http://www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="http://www.uobaghdad.edu.iq/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> College of dentistry/ University of baghdad en-US Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 1680-0087 Evaluate the effect of surface treatments on shear bond strength between lithium disilicate ceramic and dentin. http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2207 Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength between dentin and IPS e.max lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Materials and Methods: Eighteen extracted third molars were embeded in epoxy resin. The tooth was sectioned vertically in mesiodistal direction using a low speed hard tissue microtome. The buccal and lingual surfaces of each section were ground flat using 600 grit Silicone carbide paper. Eighteen ceramic discs consisted of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were prepared with a diameter of 4.7mm and height of 2.2mm. The discs were divided in two groups (n=10): (1) IPS e.max treated with hydrofluoric acid and Monobond Plus (MBP) and (2) IPS e.max treated with Monobond Etch &Prime (MBEP). The tooth was cemented with Multilink Automix and stored for 24hours at room temperature before thermocycling and subsequently loaded to failure in Universal Testing Machine. Failure mode were recorded for each specimen. Result: Bond strength analysis and t-test analysis MBEP demonstrated the higher shear bond strength (SBS). MBP and MBEP showed no statistically significant difference were found between them. One-way ANOVA and t-test was used to determine differences in bond strength within and between the groups. Cohesive failure in resin cement was predominant with higher results while adhesive and mixed with lower and equal. Conclusion: Surface treatment with Monobond Etch and Prime has a favorable effect on SBS between dentin and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic with resin cement compared with Monobond Plus. Makdad Chakmakchi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 1 8 10.12816/0041174 Comparison among pulp capping materials in: calcium ion release, pH change, solubility and water sorption (An in vitro study) http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2208 Background: Calcium hydroxide and calcium-silicate materials used as direct pulp capping materials. The aims of this in vitro study is to compare among these materials in, the calcium ion release and pH change in soaking water after immersion of materials’ specimens in deionized water. Also Solubility and water sorption of materials’ specimens measured after soaking time. Calcium-silicate materials used were Biodentine, TheraCal and MTA Plus. Materials and methods: Four materials used in this study; Urbical lining (as control group), Biodentine, TheraCal and MTA Plus. Ten discs fabricated from each tested material, by using plastic moulds of 9 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness. Each specimen was immersed in 10 ml of deionized water and stored at 37ºC using incubator for 3 hr, 24hr, 14 days and 30 days as a sequence. The amount of calcium ion (Ca+2) released in soaking water was measured in each tube using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Also pH analysis for soaking water measured by using pH meter. For solubility and water sorption measurement, the specimen (n=10) weighed with precision weighing scale before immersion in deionzed water to determine the initial Weight (W1) and immediately after weighing immersed in 10 mL of deionized water at 37 °C for 1 week using an incubator, then removed and weighing again (W2). The samples blotted dry using filter paper and dehydrated in an oven at 37 °C for 24 hr. and weighed again (W3). Then percentage of solubility and water sorption were determined. Data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests at 0.05 significant levels. Results: Statistical analysis showed highly significant differences (P<0. 05) among tested materials and in all tests (Ca+2 release, pH change, solubility and water sorption). Biodentine showed higher calcium ion released at four soaking time (3 hr, 24hr, 14 days and 30 days), with non significant difference with TheraCal and highly significant difference with MTA Plus and control group at 24 hr. immersion time; While MTA Plus showed non significant difference with control group at 24 hr. Less amount of calcium released was in control group. All tested materials induced alkalization of the soaking water that decreased with time. Means of solubility and water sorption showed that MTA Plus and biodentine had higher solubility in comparison with control group, while TheraCal showed less solubility than control group. The results of water sorption showed that less sorption percentage occurred in control group in comparison with other groups. Conclusion: calcium-silicate materials released more Ca+2 with time than calcium hydroxide. TheraCal showed less solubility and higher water sorption in comparison with control group. Biodentine and MTA Plus showed higher solubility and water sorption in comparison with TheraCal and control group. Nagham A AL-Hyali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 9 16 In Vitro The Effect of Canals Instrumented With Three Rotary Ni-Ti Systems on The Dislocation Resistance of Guttafusion® Versus Single Cone Obturation Technique http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2209 <p>Background: Complete seal of the root canal system following its chemo-mechanical debridement plays a pivotal role for achieving successful endodontic treatment. This can be established by reducing the gaps between the core filling material and root canal wall. Aim: To assess and compare the dislocation resistance of root canals obturated with GuttaFusion® and TotalFill BC sealer versus single cone obturation technique and TotalFill BC sealer after instrumentation of the canals with WaveOne, ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal system. Material and Method: Sixty extracted human permanent mandibular premolars were conducted in the current study. The teeth were decorated and left the root with 15mm length; the roots were divided randomly into three main groups, twenty roots in each group. The roots were instrumented with different rotary systems using crown down technique according to the groups: (Group I) was instrumented with WaveOne files. (Group II) was instrumented with ProTaper Next system and (Group III) was instrumented with ProTaper Universal system. For each group the same irrigation regimen was used, 3 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 3 mL of 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer. Then, Group I was also subdivided randomly into two subgroups of ten samples each, (Group I A) obturated with single cone gutta-percha and (Group I B) filled with GuttaFusion®. Group II was divided into (Group II A) obturated with single cone gutta-percha and (Group II B) filled with GuttaFusion®. Group III was divided into (Group III A) obturated with single cone gutta-percha and (Group III B) obturated with GuttaFusion®. In the present study, TotalFill BC sealer was used for all the tested groups. Then, the roots were embedded in clear acrylic resin and each root sectioned into three sections of 2mm thick (apical, middle and coronal). The push-out bond strength values represented by (MPa) unit was calculated by dividing the load on the surface area and the last was measured in collaboration with AutoCAD system software program. Failure mode analysis was carried out to examine the type of failure in each sample by using a stereomicroscope. Results: The results showed highly significant differences among the main groups that instrumented with different rotary systems (WaveOne, ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal system). There were highly significant differences between the two obturation techniques of the subgroups (single cone gutta-percha versus GuttaFusion®). However; Gutta-Fusion® showed highest bond strength value than single cone obturation technique. The coronal third slices of all groups showed highest value of bond strength in comparison to the middle thirds and apical thirds. In the meantime, the middle third slices showed bond strength higher than that of the apical thirds for all groups. Statistical analysis was performed by using two way ANOVA and LSD tests. Conclusions: The instrumentation techniques and the obturation materials significantly affected the push-out bond strength values of obturation system. The highest value was appointed in root canals instrumented with ProTaper Universal System; obturated with GuttaFusion® and BC sealer, whereas, the lowest bond strength was appeared at canals instrumented with ProTaper Next; obturated with single cone gutta-percha and BC sealer.</p> Rafal S Ameen Raghad A AlHashimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 17 25 10.12816/0041176 Assessing The Radiopacity of Three Resin Composite Materials Using a Digital Radiography Technique http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2210 Background: Radiopacity is one of the prerequisites for dental materials, especially for composite restorations. It's essential for easy detection of secondary dental caries as well as observation of the radiographic interface between the materials and tooth structure. The aim of this study to assess the difference in radiopacity of different resin composites using a digital x-ray system. Materials and methods: Ten specimens (6mm diameter and 1mm thickness) of three types of composite resins (Evetric, Estelite Sigma Quick,and G-aenial) were fabricated using Teflon mold. The radiopacity was assessed using dental radiography equipment in combination with a phosphor plate digital system and a grey scale value aluminum step wedge with thickness varying from 1mm to 10mm in steps of 1mm each. The tested materials were radiographed, we used Image J software, on a computer screen to evaluate the degree of radiopacity for each individual material and compare with the aluminum step wedge. Radiopacity was expressed in mm of equivalent aluminum step wedge. Analysis of varience (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) were used to investigate the significance of differences among the tested groups. Results: Statistical analysis showed highly significant difference among the tested groups (p≤0.01). Amongst, G-aenial composite shows the most radiopaque and it is above or equivalent to that of enamel, while Estelite Sigma Quick composite has the lowest radiopacity value and is equivalent to that of dentin. Conclusion: In line with previous studies, and within the limitation of our study, considerable variations in radiopacity values were found among materials depending on the radiopaque elements incorporated into the matrix. All composite materials tested complied with the ISO 4049 standard. Noor S Nadhum Rasha H Jehad Shatha AbdulKareem Raghad A Al-Hashimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 26 30 10.12816/0041177 How Much Do They Know? Oral Hygiene Attitude and Periodontal Awareness in Iraqi Adults http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2211 Background: The scarce literature regarding oral hygiene attitude and periodontal awareness in Iraqi adults warranted the conduction of this study in order to provide a public profile and a baseline data for further researches. Aims of the study: assessing the oral hygiene attitude and periodontal awareness in a sample of Iraqi adults. Materials and Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 500 adults. Results: Out of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 482 were included in the study.92% of the sample practiced tooth brushing, 69% out of them reported a daily brushing pattern with variable frequency,69% of the sample did not receive oral hygiene education from any source ,more than half of the sample 60 % used the horizontal brushing method, interdental aids was utilized by 42% of the sample with the dental floss being the commonest type 52%, mouthwash used by 37% and tongue cleaning was uncommon as only 22 % of the sample perform it. 78% of the sample did not know what dental plaque is while dental caries were well known by almost the entire sample 98%. 93% reported having gingival bleeding with only 5% out of them referred to the poor oral hygiene as the causative factor. The motive for seeking periodontal therapy for 80% of the sample was restoring the gingival esthetics. Conclusions: The public periodontal awareness and knowledge is still poor in Iraq, the solution requires shared resources and multiple approaches. Basma F Alanbari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 31 38 10.12816/0041178 An Analysis of the Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections on the Treatment of Internal Derangement of a temporomandibular Joint http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2212 Background: A Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement (TMJID) is a disruption within the internal aspects of the TMJ in which the disc is displaced from its normal functional relationship with the mandibular condyle, after which the articular portion of the temporal bone causes joint dysfunction, joint sound, malocclusion, and locking of the mouth. Conservative and invasive techniques can be used for the treatment of TMJID. A platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection is a simple, less invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of internal derangement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PRP injections in decreasing or eliminating pain, clicking, and limitation of mouth opening in patients with TMJID after they were proven to be unresponsive to conservative treatments. The aim is to also show more predictable clinical results. Methods: The study involved 70 patients between 19 and 46 years-old, 62 of which were female and 8 of which were male (female to maleratio 7:75).There were a total of 140 joints with anterior disc dislocation with reduction, as confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). PRP was injected in the TMJ in the superior joint space. Pain intensity, maximal interincisal opening, and TMJ sounds were assessed and compared for evaluation of treatment success. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in pain intensity and joint sound and an increase in mouth opening. Conclusions: This study shows that intra-articular PRP injection for the treatment of anterior disc displacement with reduction of the TMJ is a more effective method to reduce pain intensity and joint sound as well as increasing the patient’s mouth opening range Waleed KH Ismael Thair AbdulLateef Muhannad K Shumran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 39 44 10.12816/0041179 Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration by Mastic Orabase http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2213 Background: Recurrent aphthous ulcer is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa. Substance P has activity in the inflammatory response. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) as immune-modulators regulates the immune response and has anti-inflammatory, pro-inflammatory effects. Pistacia lentiscus (mastic) of Anacardiaceae family have pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and used in treatment of wound and repair. The aim of this study is to find the safety and efficacy of a new product mastic orabase; experimentally and clinically. Methods: This research studied two parts: first; experimentally for assessment of mastic orabase effects on rabbit dermal irritation, efficacy of mastic orabase on the induced ulceration, with histopathology of rabbits’ tissues, and safety: therapeutic index and safety factor. Second; clinical efficacy of mastic orabase on the healing of RAU by assessment of ulcer size reduction, inflammation, healing time, pain, saliva substance P and TGF-β levels in RAU patients, and monitoring for any adverse effects or adverse drug reactions. Results: Experimental study of topical mastic orabase treatment showed significant reduction of inflammation and ulcer size, healing time. Safety of mastic orabase was confirmed by no dermal irritation, no toxicity, and wide therapeutic index range. Clinical study showed reduction of inflammation, ulceration, healing in short time, pain was relieved from the first topical dose, and the anti-inflammatory activity of mastic orabase was confirmed by reduction of salivary substance P and TGF-β elevation. Conclusion: Mastic orabase showed dose-dependent efficacy in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulceration, short healing time. This may be related to effect of mastic orabase on proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators; substance P and TGF-β. Tagreed Altaei ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 45 53 10.12816/0041180 Prevalence and localization of the posterior superior alveolar artery in relation to the floor of the maxillary sinus and alveolar crest among sample of Iraqis using computed tomography http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2214 Background: Posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) is branch of the maxillary artery. It usually supplies the lateral wall of the sinus and overlying membrane. Evaluation and awareness of the anatomy of maxillary sinus before surgery is crucial to avoid surgical complications. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, location of the (PSAA) in relation to the floor of the maxillary sinus and alveolar crest using computerized tomography (CT) scans. Materials and Methods: This study included 180 Iraqi subjects (99 males and 81 females) with age more than 16 years old. CT scans for (right and left) Maxillary sinuses were done for each patient. The information obtained was assessed in a coronal multi planar reconstructions images (MPRs) in order to obtain the following parameters: prevalence rate of PSAA, distance from the lower border of the artery to the: alveolar crest, the floor of the sinus and the medial sinus wall. Results: The prevalence of PSAA on CT images was 73.61% among total sample. Distance from the lower border of the artery to the alveolar crest was (18.42± 4.07) mm, and to the sinus floor was (8.99 ±3.86) mm and to the medial sinus wall was (12.68 ± 2.81) mm. Conclusions: CT scan is valuable tool in evaluation and localization of the PSAA before maxillary sinus surgery. Abdullah A Ibrahim Lamia H AlNakib ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-15 2017-06-15 29 3 54 58 10.12816/0041181 CD34 and Wnt3 expression in potentially malignant oral disorders http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2215 Background: Potentially malignant oral disorders (PMODs) are common precursors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Neoangiogenesis and signalling are important intermediate biomarkers that may govern the progression of dysplastic mucosa into carcinoma. Aims: Evaluate the importance of CD34 and Wnt3 expression in PMODs and OSCCs in relation to their clinicopathological parameters. Settings and Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for CD34 and Wnt3 was performed for 41 samples. These included 27 PMODs, six OSCCs and eight normal gingival and alveolar mucosa. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc tests were applied. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: CD34 expression showed a significant difference between groups (P<0.05). CD34 expression decreased in patients who had PMODs, and it was seen to correlate with clinical staging in OSCC patients. The alveolar epithelia had lower microvessel density (MVD) (9.3±.88) than the gingiva (17.47±5.09) (P<0.05), whereas the lichen planus without dysplasia had lower MVD (8.85±3.95) than both the gingiva and the dysplastic epithelia (14.46±3.89) (P<0.05). On the other hand, Wnt3 expression was not detected in the alveolar mucosa, but scattered perinuclear and nuclear expression in the gingival mucosa was observed. Cytoplasmic Wnt3 expression was seen in all oral lichen planus (OLP) and some leukoplakia cases with no nuclear staining, whereas its expression in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia was only nuclear. Furthermore, OSCCs showed both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression. Conclusion: MVD may represent a useful biomarker preceding oral cancer development. It increases from normal mucosa to dysplasia to carcinoma. Aberrant cytoplasmic expression of Wnt3 is detected in PMODs and OSCCs. Thus, Wnt3 may be involved in disease progression. Noroz Hama Rashid Nader Ibrahim Gataa Gataa Al Hmedat Dena Nadhim Mohammad Balkees Taha Garib ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-15 2017-06-15 29 3 59 67 Salivary Physicochemical Characteristics in Relation to Oral Health Status Among Institutionalized Autistic Adolescents in Baghdad/Iraq http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2216 Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, restricted patterns of behavior, and unusual sensory sensitivities. Saliva may provide an easily accessible sample for analysis. Some salivary constituents levels altered in adolescents with ASD including antioxidants . This study aimed to investigate salivary physicochemical characteristic in relation to oral health status among adolescent with ASD. Materials and methods: Two groups were included in this study: forty institutionalized autistic adolescents and forty apparently healthy school adolescents with age range (12-15 years old, only males) selected randomly from Baghdad. Each group subdivided into two groups according to the severity of dental caries: caries free group (20 child, DMFT=0) and high caries group (20 child, DMFT≥6). Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and thiocyanate (SCN) in saliva measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and glutathione (GSH) assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Salivary pH and flow rate were measured directly. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: A higher value of salivary pH, flow rate, sAA, SCN, Cu and Zn were found among study group than control group with significant difference, also higher in caries free subgroup than high caries subgroup. While GSH was higher in control group than study group. Moderate negative correlations between sAA, Cu, Zn and PlI, CI, GI with highly significant and salivary pH correlate moderately with PlI and CI with highly significant. Conclusion: There is alteration in salivary constituents levels which related to oral health status in adolescents with ASD and can act as adjunctive diagnostic aid for diagnosing autism. Ali F Al-Fatlawi Nada Jafer MH. Radhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 68 73 10.12816/0041183 The Effect of Enamel Protective Agent on Shear and Tensile Bond Strength of Stainless Steel Brackets by Using Different Adhesive Agents (In Vitro Study) http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2217 Background: Decalcification of surface enamel adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances, in the form of white spot lesions, is a wide spread and familiar well-known side effect of orthodontic treatment. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of enamel protective agent (Clinpro white varnish) on shear and tensile bond strength of Dentaurum orthodontic stainless steel brackets by using 3M Unitek and Ormco as orthodontic adhesive agents. Materials and methods: Sixty-four extracted human upper first premolar teeth were selected and randomly divided into two groups with 32 teeth each, representing the shear and tensile bond strength testing groups. Then according to the type of bonding adhesive and the addition of Clinpro before bonding (3M, Clinpro + 3M, Ormco, Clinpro + Ormco) each group was subdivided into four equal subgroups each with 8 teeth. After passing twenty-four hours of bonding procedure, where the samples were kept at 37˚C the brackets were debonded by using Tinius-Olsen universal testing machine to record the shear and tensile bond strength value. The difference in bond strength was analyzed by using ANOVA test at p≤0.05. Results: The use of Clinpro with 3M Unitek orthodontic bonding agent shows higher shear and tensile bond strength than Clinpro with Ormco orthodontic bonding agent. Conclusions: Using Clinpro white varnish before bonding can be successfully used with 3M Unitek orthodontic bonding agent. Dhuha AbdulQader Sami K AlJoubori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 74 78 10.12816/0041185 Validity of Digital and Rapid Prototyped Orthodontic Study Models http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2218 Background: The integration of modern computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies in diagnosis, treatment planning, and appliance construction is changing the way in which orthodontic treatment is provided to patients. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of digital and rapid prototyped orthodontic study models as compared to their original stone models. Materials and methods: The sample of the study consisted of 30 study models with well-aligned, Angle Class I malocclusion. The models were digitized with desktop scanner to create digital models. Digital files were then converted to plastic physical casts using prototyping machine, which utilizes the fused deposition modeling technology. Polylactic acid polymer was chosen as the printing material. Twenty four linear measurements were taken from digital and prototyped models and were compared to their original stone models “the gold standard”, utilizing the paired sample t-test and Bland-Altman plots. Results: Eighteen of the twenty four variables showed non-significant differences when digital models were compared to stone models. The levels of agreement between the two methods showed that all differences were within the clinically accepted limits. For prototyped models, more than half of the variables differed in non-significant amount. The levels of agreement were also within the clinically accepted limits. Conclusion: Digital orthodontic study models are accurate in measuring the selected variables and they have the potential to replace conventional stone models. The selected rapid prototyping technique proved to be accurate in term of diagnosis and might be suitable for some appliance construction. Faten F AlSamarrai Iman I AlSheakli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 79 84 10.12816/0041186 Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Sapphire Bracket Bonded to Zirconium Surface after Using Different Surface Conditioning Methods (In Vitro Study) http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2219 Background: The present study was carried out to compare shear bond strength of sapphire bracket bonded to zirconium surface after using different methods of surface conditioning and assessment of the adhesive remnant index. Materials and methods: The sample composed of 40 zirconium specimens divided into four groups; the first group was the control, the second group was conditioned by sandblast with aluminum oxide particle 50 μm, the third and fourth group was treated by (Nd: YAG) laser (1064nm)(0.888 Watt for 5 seconds) for the 1st laser group and (0.444 Watt for 10 seconds) for the 2nd laser group. All samples were coated by z-prime plus primer. A central incisor sapphire bracket was bonded to all samples with light cure adhesive resin. Shear bond strength was measured by using Tinius Olsen universal testing machine. After debonding, each bracket and zirconium surface were examined and adhesive remnant index was registered. The difference in shear bond strength among groups was analyzed by using ANOVA test. The adhesive remnant index was assessed using Chi-square test. Results: The 2nd laser group had the highest mean value of shear bond strength then the 1st laser group followed by the sandblasting group, while the control group had the least value, non-significant difference in the shear bond strength was found between the laser groups and highly significant difference was found between all other comparable groups. Non-significant difference in the site of bond failure was found between the laser groups and sandblasting group, and between the two laser groups. Conclusion: The laser conditioning method showed higher value of shear bond strength than the sandblasting conditioning method. Hawraa Ihsan Dhiaa J AlDabagh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 85 91 10.12816/0041187 The Effect Of Bracket Ligation Method On Canine Retraction http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2220 Aim: This study aimed to compare different types of ligation methods to obtain maximum tooth movement with the least undesirable rotation. Methods: Titanium brackets bonded to acrylic canine teeth were ligated to straight stainless steel (SS) archwires using four ligation methods (figure-O and figure-8 elastics, SS ligatures, and Leone Slide ligatures). The teeth with the ligatures in place were stored in a water bath at 37ºC for 1 day, 1 week, 2, 4 or 6 weeks before testing. The teeth were retracted through softened wax along the archwire and the amount of tooth movement and degree of rotation were measured. Results: Slide ligatures showed the highest distance of tooth movement and degree of canine rotation followed by figure-O elastics, while figure-8 elastics showed the least amount of retraction and degree of rotation. SS ligatures showed moderate tooth movement with a minimal degree of rotation. Conclusions: The study recommends the use of loose SS ligatures for canine retraction in sliding mechanics, while Slide elastic ligatures are best used in leveling and aligning stage of crowded teeth since they showed reduced friction with the archwire. Akram F Alhuwaizi Esraa J Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 92 98 10.12816/0041188 Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Archwires after Immersion into Different Types of Mouthwashes(An In Vitro Study) http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2221 Background: Because of the demands for aesthetic orthodontic appliances have increased, aesthetic archwires have been widely used to meet patient's aesthetic needs. The color stability of aesthetic archwires is clinically important, any staining or discoloration will affect patient’s acceptance and satisfaction. This study was designed to evaluate the color stability of different types of aesthetic archwires after immersion into different types of mouth washes. Materials and methods: Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires: Epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H) and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit) were evaluated after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks of immersion into two types of mouthwashes (Listerine with alcohol and Listerine without alcohol). Color change measurements were performed by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to the commission Internationale de I’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system. Results: The results of this study showed that there were highly significant differences in color change values among all brands of aesthetic archwires at various immersion media. On the other hand, a significant difference was found between Dany and Orthotechnology aesthetic archwires at 1 week immersion in distilled water. Listerine with alcohol mouthwash produced more color changes of aesthetic archwires and color change value increases with the time of immersion. Conclusions: All brands of aesthetic archwires showed different degrees of color changes but most of these changes were not visible or clinically acceptable. Lubna M Hussein Nidhal H Ghaib ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 99 104 10.12816/0041189 The Effect of Artificial Saliva on The Surface Roughness of Different Esthetic Archwires (An in Vitro Study) http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2222 Background:The demand for esthetic orthodontic appliances is increasing so that the esthetic orthodontic archwires were introduced. This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the surface roughness offiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRPC) archwires compared to coated nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires immersed in artificial saliva. Materials and Methods:Three types of esthetic orthodontic archwires were used: FRPC (Dentaurum), Teflon coated NiTi (Dentaurum) and epoxy coated NiTi (Orthotechnology). They were round (0.018 inch) in cross section and cut into pieces of 15 mm in length.Forty pieces from each type were divided into four groups; one group was left at a dry condition and the other three groups were immersed in artificial saliva (pH=6.75 ± 0.015) at 37ºC for 1, 14 and 28 days intervals. The AFM was used to evaluatesurface analysis of all samples.ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, LSD and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify and localize the source of differences among the groups. Results:At each immersion period, FRPC wires exhibited the highest Ra among the study groups, except at 28 days immersion period where the Teflon coatings were the roughest. On the other hand, the least rough surfaces were the epoxy coatings when compared to analogous esthetic archwires, except at 1 day immersion period where the Teflon coatings had the least roughness. However, statistically non-significant differences were found between Teflon and epoxy at the dry condition and the 1 day immersion. Conclusions:The epoxy coated archwires are the best and the most appropriate esthetic orthodontic alignment archwires in term of the least surface roughness initially and over the course of study period. Noor S Muayad Nidhal H Ghaib ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 105 111 10.12816/0041190 Oral Health Status in Relation to Nutritional Status among Institutionalized and Non Institutionalized Orphans in Baghdad City http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2223 Background: Nutritional condition was reported as one of the factors affecting the oral health status, particularly among underprivileged groups. Orphans are one of the known high-risk groups. The aims of this study were to assess the nutritional status of orphans, and its impact on the oral health status. Materials and Methods: Five-hundred children aged 6-12 years old, 254 males and 246 females: institutionalized, non-institutionalized orphans and controls were participated in this study. Nutritional status assessed according to body mass index (BMI). Ramfjord index teeth were examined to assess oral cleanliness and gingival condition. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results this study revealed the institutionalized orphans with low mean value of BMI, significant differ than non-institutionalized orphans and highly significant than controls, whereas the non-institutionalized orphans was significantly differ than controls. Each of institutionalized and non-institutionalized orphans was with highly significant elevated mean plaque and gingival indices than control, while significant high mean rank calculus index for non-institutionalized orphans than each of institutionalized orphans and controls was found. According to BMI indicators of both orphan groups, it was found that thinness group among institutionalized orphans with significant elevated Mean Plaque Index; however, high non-significant values for Gingival and Calculus indices were found among thinness grades. Conclusion: This study reflected that nutritional status is a relative factor; may affect the oral cleanliness and gingival health. Moreover, oral hygiene and preventive care are mandatory, should be stressed through dental care programs. Aseel M. Abdul Majeed Zainab A Al Dahan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 112 119 10.12816/0041191 Impact of bitter taste threshold on caries experience in relation to ABO blood types among dental students at Al Kufa University http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2224 Background: Blood group system and the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) are the most studied traits in human genetics which have been extensively used in describing genetic variations among human populations around the world that may had an effect on dental caries. The aims of present study were to investigate the caries experience among students with different bitter taste threshold in relation to blood type. Materials and Methods: The sample of present study includes dental students female aged19-21 years. The diagnosis of dental caries was done according to the criteria of Manjia et al, 1989 recording decayed lesion by severity (D1-4) MFS. Furthermore, bitter taste sensitivity was measured according to PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) test while concerning blood types, depending on the identity student’s. Statistical analysis that used in this study can be classified into two categories: Descriptive Analysis and second Inferential analysis (Levene test, One-way Analysis of Variance). Results: The data of present study demonstrated that the differences in caries experience among different bitter taste threshold were found statistically not significant although the higher mean value for the higher grades of caries severity (D2-3) were among medium taster students while the non-taster group had the higher mean value of D1. Concerning difference in caries experiences among students with different bitter taste threshold for blood types were not significant in spite of grade D1 was found higher among non –taster A, AB blood type students while for O blood type students were found within super taster. While grade D4 severity was found higher with medium taster among students with A, AB blood types while found higher with super taster among students with O type as grades D4 were absent among students with B blood type. Conclusion: Bitter taste perception which identified according to ptc test has some effect on dental caries experience and were found different for different blood type Rafeef A Alsafi Ban S Diab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 120 125 10.12816/0041193 Assessment of the Color Stability of Clear Elastomeric Ligatures (An In Vivo Study) http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2225 Background: The desire for an attractive appearing fixed orthodontic appliance fueled the use of ceramic brackets and clear accessories. Elastics are one of the most versatile materials available to orthodontists so studying their effect on the esthetic appearance is important. This an in vivo study, conducted to evaluate the effect of exposing stretched clear elastomeric ligatures to the oral environment from four different companies (OrthoTechnology, Morelli, Ortho Organizer, and Ormco). Materials and Methods: A total of 240 elastomeric modules were examined, 60 modules from each brand. Each of the 60 patients enrolled in the study, received 4 elastomeric modules on the 4 lower incisors, one from each brand. The specimens were placed on the teeth for 1, 2 and 4 weeks. After removal each module was kept in a sealed plastic bag and prepared for imaging and color measurement. Color measurements were made before and after use of the specimens. Images were taken by a cellular attachable microscope connected to a mobile phone with special J-cam program and the color change was calculated according to CIE Labcolor spaces system by the Adobe Photoshop program. The resulting data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, LSD and Chi square tests. Results: The results showed that, all the elastomeric ligatures discolored after use. The discoloration increased with an increased incubation period in the mouth reaching the peak at 4 weeks interval and the yellowness index was the mostly effected color component. Elastomeric ligatures from Morelli brand were the most prone to discoloration, while Ortho Organizers and Ormco ligatures were the least prone to discoloration with the presence of large individual variation. Conclusion: It is necessary to alert the patient about the color changes that the clear ligatures experienced and the staining effect of certain foods. The orthodontist should select brands that are more resistant to color changes. Shams Kadhum Akram Faisal Alhuwaizi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-15 2017-09-15 29 3 126 133