Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2018-07-04T10:28:43+00:00 journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Open Journal Systems <h3>About Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</h3> <p><strong><a title="American Medical Journal" style="color: rgb(0, 105, 144);" href="/index.php/" target="_self">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</a></strong> is a quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry. <img width="168" height="211" style="padding: 5px; float: left;" alt="" src="/public/site/images/nasseer/image_cover.jpg">University of Baghdad dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge and information on all sciences relevant to dentistry and to the oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease. The entire archive back to 2005 is available online and articles are available free online their official publication.The journal does not accept any advertising but you will find postings for faculty positions. Additionally, the journal also does not rent, sell or otherwise allow its subscriber list to be used by any other entity. We seeks organizations interested in supporting unbiased research and educational practices. Learn more about opportunities to align your organization with this important initiative.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Issue Available Vol. 30 No. 2</a></p> <h3>&nbsp;</h3> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instructions for Authors</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Licenses and Copyright</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publication ethics</a></p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> Bacterial Contamination of Acrylic Resin Complete Denture in Vitro Study 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Cheman Abdulrahman Al Jmoor Background: Cross contamination of dental appliances in the dental clinics and laboratories may potentially be a health hazard to the dental team and the patient. This study aimed to evaluate bacterial contamination of acrylic complete denture as received from dental laboratory before delivery to the patient, and then to evaluate the effectiveness of disinfection with 2% chlorhexidine and Kin denture cleaner tablet. Materials and methods: 45 newly made upper complete dentures undergone biaacterial examination for contamination before delivered to the patient. Samples were examined in two stages, first after finishing and polishing; when collected from the laboratory and before inserting to the patient mouth, second; after the samples were immersed in 2 different disinfectant materials, 2% chlorhexidine mouth wash and Kin denture cleaner tablet. After initial stage, the dentures were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 immersed in Kin denture cleaner tablet for 10 minutes, group 2 immersed in 2% chlorhexidine mouth wash for 10 minutes and group 3 immersed for 20 minutes in 2% chlorhexidine. Data were analyzed with a computer-run statistical program (IBM SPSS Version 23). Results: High score of bacterial contamination was found initially in the sample collected from dental laboratory. Significant reduction in the colonies number was noticed after immersing the dentures in 2% Chlorhexidine and Kin denture cleaner tablets for10 minutes. There was nearly no contamination found with samples immersed in 2% chlorhexidine for 20 minutes. Conclusion: Dental laboratory is a main source of microbial contamination. Immersion of the dental prosthesis in disinfectant materials is essential before inserting into the patient mouth. 2%chlorhexidine mouth wash was more effective as disinfection material as compared to Kin denture cleaner tablet. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of phosphate ester addition on transverse strength and hardness of heat cured acrylic denture base material 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Zahraa S. abed karkosh Basima M.A. Hussien Background: acrylic resin denture base consider a common denture base material for its acceptable cost, aesthetic and easy processing but still has disadvantages including easy of fracture and low impact strength. Material and method: The experimental group was prepared by addition of 15% phosphoric acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate ester (PA2HEME) with polymethyl methacrylate monomer; the experimental groups was compared with the control one. The specimens were prepared according to ADA specification No. 12 with dimension 65 mm x 10 mm x2.5 mm (length x width x thickness respectively). The prepared specimens were tested by three-point flexural strength utilizing Instron Universal Testing Machine (WDW, Layree Technology Co.), Shore D hardness tester used to measure hardness test. Statistical analysis used student T- test, mean and standard deviation. Results: The result of PA2HEME group showed high significant reduction comparing to the control group for both transverse strength and hardness test. Conclusion: Mixing 15% of PA2HEME with 85% methyl methacrylate (MMA) can reduce the mechanical properties of new modified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resin. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Histological and histomorphometric studies of the effects of hyaluronic acid on osseointegration of titanium implant in rabbits 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Mohammad H. Mohammad Nada M.H. Al Ghaban Background: One of the unique prosthesis for tooth or teeth replacement is the dental implant. Our attempt is using a biomaterial system that is easily obtained and applicable and has the ability to provoke osteoinductive growth factor to enhance bone formation at the site of application. One of these natural polymers is hyaluronic acid. Material and methods: Sixty machined surface implants from commercially pure titanium rod inserted in thirty NewZealand rabbits. Two implants placed in both tibia of each rabbit. The animals scarified at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after implantation (10 rabbits for each interval). For all of animals the right tibia’s implant was control (uncoated) and the left one was experimental (coated with 0.1ml Hyaluronic acid gel). All sections have been stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin then they were histologically examined and assessed for histomorphometric analysis for counting of bone cells (osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast), cortical bone thickness, trabecular width, thread width and marrow space star volume (V*). Results: Histological findings for hyaluronic acid- coated titanium implant revealed an earlier bone formation, mineralization and maturation than that in control groups. Histomorphometric analysis for all bone parameters that examined in this study, showed highly significant difference between control and experimental groups in all healing intervals. Conclusion: Commercially pure titanium endosseous implants coated with hyaluronic acid may be osteocoductive thus accelerating healing process and enhancing osseointegration. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Alendronate Treatment on Salivary Levels of Osteoprotegrin and TNF-α in Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis and Periodontal Diseases 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Aseel J. Ibraheem Aysar N. Mohammed Background: All diseases concerning bone destruction such as osteoporosis and periodontal diseases share common pattern in which the osteoclast cells are absolutely responsible for bone resorption that occurred when osteoclast activity exceeds osteoblast activity. Osteoprotegrin (OPG) considered as novel soluble decoy receptor known as “bone protector” since it prevents extreme bone resorption through inhibition of differentiation and activity of osteoclast by competing for binding site. It binds to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and prevent its interaction with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK), thus inhibits osteoclast formation. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokines having a broad range of important roles in regulation of immune system and bone resorption through the stimulation of osteoclastogenesis. Alendronate (ALN) diminishes the expression of osteoclast activating factors and cytokines such as RANKL and enhances the production of decoy receptor osteoprotegerin in osteoblast cells. Moreover, it decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α by macrophage, stimulates apoptosis of monocyte-macrophage cell lines derivative and reduces inflammatory response. Aims of the Study: 1. To assess the effect of alendronate treatment on salivary levels of osteoprotegrin and TNF-α in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and periodontal disease 2. To find any possible correlation between salivary levels of osteoprotegrin and TNF-α in control and study groups. Materials and Methods: Total sample of 90 female subjects (55-65 years) were divided into 3 groups, (30 subjects in each group): first control group involved systemically healthy subjects with healthy periodontium, second group involved postmenopausal women with osteoporosis under alendronate treatment for(3-6)months (alendronate group), third group involved postmenopausal women with osteoporosis without alendronate treatment(osteoporosis group). The last two groups were sub- divided in- to two sub –groups (15 subjects in each sub-group) of gingivitis and periodontitis subjects respectively. Salivary samples were collected from all subjects and salivary levels of osteoprotegrin and TNF- α were determined by enzyme –linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Highest median value of salivary (OPG) was found in alendronate group followed by control group while the lowest value was found in osteoporosis group. Highest median value of TNF- α was found in osteoporosis group followed by control group and alendronate group respectively with highly significant differences between them. Spearman correlation between salivary levels of TNF-α and OPG showed non- significant correlation at all subgroups. Conclusion: Subjects with osteoporosis in this study had greater levels of TNF-α and decrease in the level of OPG comparing with patients under alendronate treatment. Alendronate treatment for women with osteoporosis and periodontal disease may have beneficial outcome. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the effect of local exogenous application of osteopontin on wound healing in rats 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Zahraa R. Al Zamely Enas F. Kadhim Background: Wound healing is a complex dynamical interaction between various cell types, the extracellular matrix, cytokines, and growth factors. osteoponetin is a substance that acts as an anti-inflammatory. Aims of study: The study was designed to identify the role of local exogenous applications of osteopontin on wound healing (in cheek skin). Materials and methods: Thirty adult male albino rats weighting an average of (250-300gm) used in this study, incisional wounds were made in the skin of the cheek of rat and they were divided into the following groups: A-Control group: 15 rats treated with 1µ l of normal saline B-Experimental groups: 15 rats treated with topical application of 1µl osteopontin. The scarification of animals were done for the healing intervals (1, 5 and 10 days) Histological analysis and assessment of number of inflammatory cell, Thickness and contraction of incision were performed for both experimental and control groups for all healing periods. Results: Histological analysis revealed that osteopontin accelerate wound healing of cheek skin and there was highly significant difference among studied groups in periods 1,5,10 days. Regarding mean values of epithelial thickness, inflammatory cell count and contraction of wound area have reported a highest value different in 1, 5 and 10 days durations. Conclusion: It can be concluded that application of osteopontin shown efficacy in the healing of skin wounds induced in rats. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of serum levels Superoxide dismutase in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and gingivitis 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Omar H. Ali Zainab J. Raheem Nada K. Imran Ali Y. Majid Maha A. Ahmed Azza W. AL deen Khairi Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women, there is an increasing evidence for an oxidative stress in PCOS that induce genomic and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid damage that leads directly to reduced fertility. The objectives of this study are to assess and compare the periodontal health status by measuring clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI and BOP)as well as serum levels of superoxide dismutase at gingivitis ,gingivitis with PCOS and healthy periodontium groups, then correlate between clinical and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: 60 females with an age range between (25-40) years old had been tested and divided into3 groups ,the control group consists of (20) females with healthy periodontium, group of (20) females with gingivitis and group of (20) females with gingivitis and PCOS. After completion of clinical periodontal parameters recording (PLI, GI& BOP), blood samples were collected and biochemical analysis of serum samples were carried out by using [Super oxide dismutase Assay kit] to evaluate serum super oxide dismutase levels. Results: The highest mean values of PLI,GI and BOP score1 were found in gingivitis+PCOS group. Highly significant difference was revealed among the groups regarding mean values of Superoxide dismutase with the highest mean value at gingivitis+ PCOS followed by gingivitis groups. Non-significant correlation were demonstrated between clinical and biochemical parameters except the significant moderate positive correlation of BOP at gingivitis+PCOS group. Conclusion: It could be certified that severity of gingivitis may increase in patients with PCOS. The concentration of serum SOD increased with the severity of gingival inflammation as well as the presence of PCOS. Serum SOD may be useful biochemical marker for early detection of periodontal disease and PCOS. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Dental Implant Site Dimensions And Alveolar Bone Density in The Mandible Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Omran K. Karim Ahlam A. Fatah Background: The quantity and the quality of available bone, influence the clinical success of dental implants surgery. Cone beam Computed tomography is an established method for acquiring bone images before performing dental implant. Cone beam computed tomography is an essential tool for treatment planning and post-surgical procedure monitoring, by providing highly accurate 3-D images of the patient's anatomy from a single, low-radiation scan which yields high resolution images with favorable accuracy. The aim of study is the Measurement of alveolar bone (height and buccolingual width) and density in the mandible among Iraqi adult subject using CBCT for assessment of dental implant site dimensions. Material and method: The study sample include (60) Iraqi subjects (30 male and 30 females) aged between 20-65 years, sagittal view of Cone beam computed tomography was obtained to measure the height ,width and alveolar bone density of the mandibular anterior area, while coronal view was used to measure the height ,width and alveolar bone density assessment of the mandibular premolar and molar areas. Measurement of mandibular bony height and width was in(mm)and each of the three mandibular areas were represented by seven consecutive measurements for bony height and width and these seven stations were set using an average distance of 2 mm apart while the bone density in Hounsfield unit (HU) with point of measurement represent the mean of density to the area located between the height and buccolingual width. Results:The Statistical analysis of linear measurements of mandibular bone which include the bony height , width and density showed that the mean values of all three measurements are significantly higher in males than females also there was statistically significant difference in the mean bone density of mandibular areas which was highest in anterior area and lowest in the molar area followed by premolar area among both gender, mandibular bony height showed a statistically insignificant very weak negative linear correlation with age in all the three examined mandibular areas while the effect of age on bucolingual width was significantly higher among subjects older than 50 years compared to those younger than 50 years old. Conclusion: The mean bony height was highest in anterior area and lowest in premolar area followed by molar area, while the mean bony width was lowest in anterior area and highest in molar area followed by premolar area , finally the mean bone density was highest in anterior area and lowest in molar area followed by premolar area. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relation of Gonial Angle Index to osteoporosis and age using CBCT in female subjects 2018-07-04T10:27:50+00:00 Raya M. Al Bayati Saif S. Saliem Lamia H. Al Nakib background: osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease that affects women more than men, it is characterized by generalizes reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) leaving a fragile weak bone that is liable to fracture, gonial angle index (GAI) is one of the radio-morphometric indices, it has been controversial whether it is related to bone mineral density or ageing or none of them. The aim of study is to evaluate the role of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis and age effect in females using gonial angle index. Material and method: 60 females were divided into 3 groups according to age and (BMD) status into: Group1 (non-osteoporosis 20-30 years), Group2 (non-osteoporosis 50years and above), and Group3 (osteoporosis 50years and above), each patient had a CBCT scan, and gonial angle index was measured compared among groups. Results: Gonial angle index showed a significant difference between Group1 and Group2 at p < 0.05, while it showed no significant difference between Group2 and Group3 at p > 0.05. Conclusion: Gonial angle index is significantly affected by age factor while it was not affected by osteoporosis, so it cannot be used as a parameter that can predict bone mineral density status patients 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in saliva of acromegalic patients, and comparison it with the levels of serum IGF-I. 2018-07-04T10:27:50+00:00 Shiamaa Zwain Sahar H. Alani Abdilkarim Y. Alsammariae Acromegaly is ametabolic disorder characterized by an acquired progressive somatic disfigurement, mainly involving the face, extremities and many other organs, that are associated with systemic manifestations, caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone and a resultant persistent elevation of insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations. In more than 90% of cases originates from a monoclonal benign pituitary adenoma. Aim of this study to assess the level of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in saliva of acromegalic patients, and to compare it with the basal levels of serum IGF-I. Sixty specimens of serum and saliva collected from two groups of subjects (forty acromegalic patients and twenty healthy persons). The specimens were centrifuged and stored at -20ºC then IRMA kits were used for estimating insulin like-growth factor-I. The results show that acromegalic patients had significantly higher salivary insulin like growth factor-I concentrations than healthy subjects (mean 21.26 vs. 20.48ng/mL; p=0.041), serum insulin like growth factor-I concentrations (mean 782.21 vs. 199.87ng/mL; p<0.001), there is significant correlation between salivary and serum insulin like growth factor –I in acromegalic group, whiles no significant correlation in control group, Salivary IGF-I concentration may not represented the corresponding serum concentration adequately, so cannot be considered it as alternative diagnostic tool to the acromegalic patients 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Occurrence and pattern of antibiotic resistance among dental plaque bacteria from gingivitis patients and their clinical correlation 2018-07-04T10:27:50+00:00 Sazan M. Abdulaziz Background: A diverse group of bacteria live in biofilms in the oral cavity. On dental surfaces biofilms form plaque that is potentially involved in caries and periodontal diseases. Periodic studying of plaque microflora and their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns strongly affects the clinical practice in plaque-induced oral diseases. Materials and methods: Dental plaque samples were collected from 22 patients having ages ranged between 33 and 49 years with gingivitis that met the study criteria. Plaque, gingival and gingival bleeding indices (PI, GI, GBI) were measured for each patient. Laboratory procedures included microbiological examination of plaque samples followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing using disc diffusion method were also proceeded. Results: All patients were categorized as moderate gingivitis (GI: 1.1-2.0), the recorded PI were 1.2-2.7. Bleeding was observed in all subjects. Gingivitis was significantly higher in males (P=0.021). A total of 121 bacterial species were isolated from plaque samples, Facultative anaerobes constitute 83%. The most frequently isolated bacteria were α-hemolytic streptococci (36.36%) and Enterococcus faecalis (14.87%) among facultative, and Fusobacterium sp., Actinomyces sp., Veillonella sp. among obligate anaerobes (3.31%, 2.48%, 2.48%, respectively). Imipenem (77.2%) and Ciprofloxacin (59.4%) were the most effective agents against both bacterial groups. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was recorded in most of the isolates (> 90%). A very highly significant relation between MDR with each of the above clinical criteria was recorded (P-value= 0.000). Conclusions: The high level of MDR isolates is of great clinical concern and requires an urgent reassessment of the policies of antibiotic prescription in dental settings. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Periodontal health status of patients with Maxillary Chronic Rhinosinusitis (Part 1: Clinical study) 2018-07-04T10:27:50+00:00 Sohair M. Zaki Maha Abd. Ahmed Husam M. Hameed Background: Periodontal diseases (PD) are inflammatory conditions of the tissues supporting the teeth, most often gingivitis and periodontitis. Maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis (MCRS) is the inflammation of the maxillary sinuses which is last for at least 12 consecutive weeks duration. Aims of study: Distribution of periodontal diseases among patients with Maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis according to gender and age. Materials and methods: Males and females subjects (25-45 years), divided into two groups; 150 patients suffer from MCRS and 130 subjects without MCRS. Clinical periodontal parameters; Plaque Index (PL.I), Gingival Index (G.I), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) and Bleeding On Probing (BOP) recorded for four sites per tooth except third molars for all subjects, according to this examination groups were divided into four subgroups: clinically Healthy periodontium, Gingivitis, Chronic periodontitis CP.1, when PPD mean is (4-6 mm) and CP.2, when it is (> 6mm). Results: (75.33%) of patients with MCRS had periodontal diseases, highest percentage (48%) had Gingivitis, number of females more than males, percentages of females with clinically Healthy periodontium and Gingivitis were higher. Subjects without MCRS demonstrated highest percentage (56.92%) with clinically Healthy periodontium. Significant and highly significant differences between the 2 groups in PL.I, G.I, PPD and CAL at all subgroups except BOP score1 revealed non significant differences. Conclusion: 75.33% of patients with MCRS have periodontal diseases with greater PL.I, G.I, PPD and CAL when compared with subjects without MCRS. There is relation between periodontal diseases and MCRS. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison of certain radiomorphometric facial indices in different facial types of Iraqi adults using Cone Beam Computed Tomography 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Zahraa R. Ali Abeer B. Mahmood Lamia H. Al Nakib Maisaa Q. Muhamed Ali Background: The human face has its special characteristics. It may be categorized into essentially three kinds in horizontal and vertical directions: short or brachyfacial, medium or mesofacial and long or dolichofacial. The aim of this study was to describe several orofacial indices and proportions of adults, according to gender in Iraqi subjects by using cone beam computed tomography . materials and methods: This prospective study included 100 Iraqi patients (males and females) ranging from 20 to 40 years. All subjects attended the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Department of Health Specialist Center for Dentistry in AL Sadr city in Baghdad taking cone beam computed tomography scan for different diagnostic purposes from October 2016 to May 2017. The facial index was used for determination of facial type. Subjects were divided according to gender and then by photoshope cs4 programe ,five variables were calculated : inferior face index, superior face index, chin-face proportion, chin proportion and mandibular proportion. Results: The average values obtained from the subjects divided according to genders that presented significant diffe¬rences were: inferior face index and superior face index for males and inferior face index, superior face index and mandibular proportion for females. Conclusion: There were variation in some indices and proportions according to genders. In males groupe, inferior face index and superior face index had significant difference between the average of the facial types, while in female group, inferior face index, superior face index and mandibular proportion had significant difference between the average of the facial types 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Some Remineralization Materials and Resin Infiltration (ICON) on the Depth of White Spot Lesions 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Israa J. Attar Nidhal H. Ghaib Background: White spot lesions (WSLs) are subsurface enamel demineralization manifested as white opacities which had an esthetic problem. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the lesion depth improvement of WSLs following application of fluoride varnish, tooth mousse and resin infiltration (ICON). Materials and methods: Artificial WSLs were created on 120 premolar teeth using demineralization solution with pH (4-4.5). Samples randomly allocated into four groups; fluoride varnish, tooth mousse, ICON and untreated group. Groups were discolored in Cola and orange juice for 24 hours. Teeth were ground sectioned by longitudinal cutting then these sections examined and photographed under stereomicroscope at 12X magnification then analyzed for lesion depth measurements using Image Pro Plus computer software to record the average lesion depth (μm). Results: The mean values of lesion depth for WSLs groups in DDW, Cola and orange juice increased after formation of WSLs then decreased with the fluoride varnish, tooth mousse and ICON. There was a statistically significant difference between the WSLs, fluoride and Mousse group in DDW and Cola, while there was no statistically significant effect of ICON on WSL in DDW (p=0.341)and Cola (p=0.210). Conclusions: Formation of WSLs is associated with significant lesion depth changes and the use of fluoride varnish, tooth mousse and ICON could return minerals or resin to subsurface enamel of WSLs and improve lesion depth in different soft drinks. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior in Relation to Oral Hygiene and Gingival Condition among a Group of Industry Workers 2018-07-04T10:27:49+00:00 Muna Abdulla Background: In Iraqi communities, the workers considered the largest population groups, so increasing their dental education by increasing the care for their dental health knowledge and behavior is very important, the present study was aimed to evaluate the gingival health and oral hygiene in relation to knowledge and behavior among a group of a workers selected randomly from Al Fedaa company in Baghdad city. Materials and methods: A sample of 110 workers (65 men and 45 women) included in this study, a questionnaire used to evaluate their oral health knowledge and behavior. The gingival health condition of the workers was examined by using Loe and Silness index (1963), Silness and Loe index (1964) was used to asses plaque quantity, and Ramfjord index (1959) used to asses calculus quantity, SPSS version 18 was used to analyze the data of the study statistically. Results: This study showed that no significant differences between plaque, calculus, and gingival index with the education degree of the workers. About the knowledge the result showed no significant differences in questions asking about type and characteristic of dental caries, best type of tooth paste, brushing technique. There is a significant differences found in questions regarding gingival health and bleeding. The behavior of the workers showed no significant differences in questions regarding quantity of brushing teeth, using assistant aid, better time for eating sweet, while there is a significant difference in question about smoking and gingival health and duration of brushing time. Conclusion: Increasing the dental education by using the help of social media, schools, and national educational programs will improve the dental knowledge and behavior which affect positively on the oral hygiene 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Revitalization of a necrotic immature permanent anterior tooth (Case Report) 2018-07-04T10:27:50+00:00 Rabab Kubba Zainab Al Dahan Background: Management of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp is considered challenging to the clinician. Regeneration of pulp tissue is a relatively new approach for management of these teeth that allow continuation of root maturation rather than formation of just a calcific barrier as in apexification. Method: 9 years-old girl with traumatized upper left central incisor. The clinical and radiographical examinations revealed uncomplicated crown fracture, tenderness to percussion, absence of response to cold vitality test. Diagnostic X-ray revealed open apex with periapical radiolucency. Revascularization was suggested to treat the tooth, starting with irrigation of canal with 5% NaOCl + 3% H2O2, followed by 2 weeks of triple antibiotic (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline) paste application. Then antibiotic paste was removed, bleeding was induced and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement was applied over the blood clot and the access cavity was filled with Glass Ionomer filling material. The patient was evaluated clinically and radiographically after 1 and 7 months. Results: In clinical and radiographical examinations in follow-up visits, the tooth was asymptomatic and functional and periapical radiolucency was healed. Apical closure and positive response to cold test were noticed in the 7th month follow-up visit. Conclusion: Revascularization is an effective treatment for immature necrotic teeth. In addition, CEM cement provides favorable outcomes in revascularization treatment. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Caries experience and treatment needs among footballers in Baghdad city 2018-07-04T10:27:50+00:00 Yasir B. Abd Ali Eman K. Chaloob Background: footballers may have poor oral health like elevated levels of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Iraqi footballers and to measure dental treatments needs. Materials and methods: 403 Iraqi males footballers aged from 18-32 years were included in the study. The cases were recruited from 18 clubs in Baghdad city. Results: the results of present study showed increased percent of caries experience according to age increase and decreased dental caries percent as education level increased among Iraqi footballers. Decayed component was found to be the largest of DMFS value compared to MS and FS among all age groups, Caries experience was found to be increased as age increase and differences were statistically significant between the three age groups except at DS. The difference was found significant between education level and DS and FS. Our results showed that all footballers are in need to dental treatment. Conclusion: in Iraqi footballers the percent of caries experience decreased as education level increased. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oral Health Status among 9 years old school Children in Al-Diwaniyah City/Iraq. 2018-07-04T10:27:50+00:00 Zahraa A. Al Awadi Baydaa Hussien Background: Although they are not life threatening, dental caries and periodontal disease are the most predominant and widely spread oral diseases throughout the world. Another most common dental problem seen in children is dental trauma. The aims of the study included the investigation of the prevalence and severity of dental caries, gingivitis and dental plaque in relation to gender, furthermore, the prevalence and severity of the traumatized anterior teeth were assessed. Materials and Methods: This oral health survey was conducted among primary school children aged 9 years old in Al-Diwaniyah city in Iraq. The total sample composed of 600 child (320 males and 280 females) selected randomly from different school in Al-Diwaniyah city. Diagnosis of dental caries was according to the criteria described by WHO (1987). Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) was used for plaque assessment, gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) was followed for recording gingival health condition. Diagnosis and recording of traumatic dental injuries was according to Garcia-Godoy's classification (1981). Results: Results showed that the prevalence of dental caries was 85% for 9 year-old school children. Regarding primary and permanent dentition, dental caries was higher among females compared to males with statistically significant difference (P<0.05) for primary dentition, on the other hand, males showed higher values of filled surfaces compared to females with statistically significant difference (P<0.05) for primary dentition and highly significant difference (P<0.01) for permanent dentition. Finding of this study revealed that 100% of the children had gingival inflammation. Furthermore, the values of plaque and gingival indices were higher among males compared to females with statistically highly significant differences (P<0.01). The prevalence of children with traumatized anterior teeth was 10.5% of the total sample. Males were more affected than females, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Simple enamel fracture was the most common type of injury among traumatized teeth among children. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly injured teeth. Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis were recorded. 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##