Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2018-04-02T18:28:18+00:00 journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Open Journal Systems <h3>About Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</h3> <p><strong><a style="color: #006990;" title="American Medical Journal" href="/index.php/" target="_self">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</a></strong> is a quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry. <img style="float: left; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px;" src="/public/site/images/nasseer/image_cover.jpg" alt="" width="168" height="211">University of Baghdad dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge and information on all sciences relevant to dentistry and to the oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease. The entire archive back to 2005 is available online and articles are available free online their official publication.The journal does not accept any advertising but you will find postings for faculty positions. Additionally, the journal also does not rent, sell or otherwise allow its subscriber list to be used by any other entity. We seeks organizations interested in supporting unbiased research and educational practices. Learn more about opportunities to align your organization with this important initiative.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Issue Available Vol. 30 No.&nbsp;1</a></p> <h3>&nbsp;</h3> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instructions for Authors</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Licenses and Copyright</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Publication ethics</a></p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> The Surface Hardness Measurement of Stone and Improved Die Stone After the Addition of a Mixture of Chemical Additives with Different Proportion 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Anaam Sh. Al Hadad Abbas F Al Huwaizi Raed F Al Huwaizi Background: Incorporation of chemical additives has long been a technique used to improve properties of the gypsum products. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of adding a combination of gum Arabic and calcium hydroxide to a type III dental stone and type IV improved die stone with different proportion. The effect on water/powder ratio, and surface hardness was determined. Material and method: Both material stone and die stone were blended with two proportion of additives so that each material was mixed twice but with different proportion of gum Arabic (0.1% and 0.2%) and calcium hydroxide (0.5 % and 0.3%). Data for hardness were subjected to two-way analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the chemical additives were reduced the water requirements of gypsum products so that the reduction of water lead to increase the density of mixture that sets harder. For type III dental stone the additives significantly improved the surface hardness, while for type IV improved die stone the surface hardness was not enhanced except it was designed to be mixed at low water/powder ratio, and in some instances a reduction in hardness was observed, especially at the most reduced water / powder ratio (0.18). 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vitro Performance of Polymethyl–methacrylate with Ultra High Density Poly Ethylene Fiber and Nano Zirconium Oxide Particles Composite 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Ahmed A. Mohammed Intisar J. Ismail Background: Poly (methyl methacrylate) has been widely utilized for fabrication of dentures for many years as it has good advantages but not achieved all demands of the mechanical properties such as low transverse strength, low impact strength, low surface hardness, high water solubility and high water sorption. Material and method: To provide bonding between ZrO2 nanoparticles and PMMA matrix, the ZrO2 Nano-fillers were surface-treated with a saline coupling agent. Plasma surface treatment of polyethylene (PE) fiber was done to change surface fiber by using DC- glow discharge system. For characterization of interring any functional groups, the (FTIR) spectrum were done .then the mechanical properties studied to choose the appropriate percentages to complete study. Results: The results revealed that highly significant difference between groups in transverse strength, the highest mean value (96.1700 N/mm2) found in 2.0% polyethylene fibers and 1.5% salinized Zirconium oxide nanoparticles group, highly significant increase in impact strength (7.69 Kj/m2), surface hardness (92.35) and highly significant decrease in water sorption (0.0016 mg/cm2) and water solubility (0.0013 mg/cm2). Conclusion: the use of saline coupling agent with ZrO2 and oxygen plasma treatment PE fiber provided an effective procedure for getting good bonding with the PMMA matrix to give enhanced properties for the composite. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Addition of Combination of Plasma Treated Polyester and Polyamide Fibers on Surface Roughness and Some Mechanical Properties of Heat Cured Acrylic Resin 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Abdalbseet A Fatalla Ghasak H Husham Zaynab S. Abdullah Background: Poly (methyl methacrylate) has several disadvantages (poor mechanical properties) like impact and transverse strength. In order to overcome these disadvantages, several methods were used to strengthen the acrylic resin by using different fibers or fillers. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Plasma treatment of the fiber on mechanical properties Poly (methyl methacrylate) denture base material. Materials and methods: Specimens were prepared from poly methyl metha acrylic (PMMA) divided according to present of fiber into 4 groups (first group without fiber as control group, second group with Plasma treated polyester fibers, third group with Plasma treated polyamide fibers and fourth group Plasma treated combination of polyester and polyamide fibers. The samples to be treated with oxygen gas plasma Results: the results show that the highest mean values for all tests included in the study appeared in group IV (Plasma treated combination of polyester and polyamide fibers) except for the surface roughness test the highest mean values found in group III (Plasma treated polyamide fibers, and only polyamide fiber slight improved roughness and other group have no effect on surface roughness Conclusion The addition of plasma treated fiber ( polyester, polyamide and combination of both fiber) improve transverse, impact strength and hardness properties of denture base material and has no effect on surface roughness. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Different Pouring Interval of Conventional Impression on the Marginal Accuracy of Full Contour Zirconia Crowns in Comparison with Digital Impression (An in vitro study) 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Elaf A. Hadi Adel F. Ibraheem Background: The success and maintenance of indirect dental restorations is closely related to the marginal accuracy, which is affected by many factors like preparation design, using of different fabrication techniques, and the time of taking final impression and pouring it. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different pouring time of conventional impression on the vertical marginal gap of full contour zirconia crowns in comparison with digital impression technique. Materials and Methods: Forty sound recently extracted human permanent maxillary first premolar teeth of comparable size and shape were collected. Standardized preparation of all teeth samples were carried out to receive full contour zirconia crown restoration with deep chamfer finishing line all around the tooth with (1mm) depth, axial length (4mm) and convergence angle (6 degree). The specimens separated into two groups; Group A; eight specimens were scanned digitally by using Omnicam scanner; Group B; conventional impressions were taken for the remaining thirty two specimens and further subdivided to four groups according to the time of impression pouring; Group B1: PVS were poured after 30 minutes; Group B2: PVS were poured after 24 hours; Group B3: PVS were poured after 7 days; Group B4:PVS were poured after 14 days. Marginal discrepancy was measured at four points at each tooth surface. Sixteen points per tooth were measured using digital microscope at (180X) magnification. One-way ANOVA test and LSD test were carried out to see if there was any significant difference among the means of the conventional impression groups. Independent samples t-test was carried out to examine if there is any significant difference between digital and conventional impression technique. Results: group B2 had the least mean of marginal gap with statistically significant difference when compared to group B1 and statistically highly significant difference when compared to group B3 and B4. There was a statistically highly significant difference in the vertical marginal gap between digital impression technique and conventional impression. Conclusions: the pouring of conventional impression after 24 hours provides better marginal fit than other pouring time. The digital impression provides better marginal fit than conventional impression. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Radiological Evaluation of the Anatomic Characteristic of Lingual Foramina and Their Vascular Canals in the Anterior Region of the Mandible Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Fatima M. Abd Al-khuther Ahlam A. Fatah Background: presence of lingual vascular foramina and canals in the interforaminal region may increase the risk ofsurgical complications during implant placement or any surgical procedure in this area. Aim of this study is the radiological evaluation of the anatomic characteristic of the lingual foramina and their vascular canals in the anterior of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods: Prospective study including 72 Iraqi subjects (31 male and 41 female) ranging from 20 to 59 years, all subjects attended Al-Sharaa dental clinic in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city, scanned with CBCT from September 2016 to February 2017. Using 3dimentional and sagittal cross section to detect lingual foramina and their vascular canals. Their presence, number, diameter, position, and orientation were established. Results: Lingual foramina in the anterior mandible were viewed in whole sample. Number of lingual canals varied from (1-5), the average diameter of the canals was 0.81 mm. The average distance from the foramina to the base of the mandible and to the alveolar crest was 13.78 mm and 16.05mm respectively. There was no significant correlation found between age and gender on all selected measurements. There was significant association of diameter of lingual foramen with the count, situation, extent and direction of lingual canal through the mandible width. Conclusion: Cone beam computed tomography is an invaluable system in diagnosis and treatment planning of surgical procedures. It help in detection of various anatomic features of mandible like presence of lingual foramen and canals in the anterior mandible. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bruxism and Sleep Quality Among Iraqi Dental Students 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Noor S. Mohammed Ali Background: Undergraduate dental students are more susceptible to situations of stress that affected quality of sleep, such profiles of stress may result in sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism, parafunctions that can affect oral and general health. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed including 260 Iraqi dental students from university of Baghdad aged from 20to25years old. Students enrolled in the third and fifth class participated in the study. The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index (PSQI) was used for data collection. The PSQI was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Results: prevalence of sleep bruxism was 9.62% and prevalence of awake bruxism was 15.76%. Statistically significant differences were observed between students who had awake bruxism and the mean of PSQI global score and its components of sleep categories: PSQI global score and day time dysfunction (p<0.001), habitual sleep efficiency (p=0.044; p<0.05) and sleep quality (p=0.046; p<0.05). While for students had sleep bruxism the statistically significant differences were observed in sleep disturbance (p=0.021; p<0.05) and sleep duration (p=0.042; p<0.05). Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported awake bruxism as well as among those who presented sleep bruxism. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Topical Application of Flavanoids Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Experimentally Induced Bone Defect 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Sura Saad Majeed Ban A Ghani Background: The restoration of bone continuity and bone union are complex processes, and their success is determined by the effectiveness of osteosynthesis. The use of plants for healing purposes predates human history and forms the source of current modern medicine The aim of this study: It was histological evaluation of effect of topical application of flavonoid on healing of induced bone defect in rabbit tibia. Material and method: Twenty-four Adult New Zealand rabbits used in this study, they were divided into four groups for the healing periods (3days, 1,2, and 4weeks) Two holes were induced in rabbit tibia one on the left side and has been left to heal normally as control. While, the other hole made on the right side filled with flavonoid extract regarded as experimental. Sacrificing of the animals were done according to the healing periods. Routine processing and sectioning technique was performed for histological and histomorphometric evaluation. Results: Histological findings revealed that progression of bone healing process was accelerated after flavonoid application as shown by examination of histological sections and results of statistical analysis that indicated increase of mean count difference of cells between control and experimental groups obviously noticed at early healing durations. Histomorphometric analysis for all bone parameters examined in this study, showed increase in mean count difference while bone marrow space decreased. Conclusion: The study revealed that topical application of flavonoid was effective in promoting bone healing process 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Study of Oral Findings, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Vitamin E in Serum and Saliva of Crohn's Patients on Azathioprine Monotherapy and those on Combination of Anti-TNF-α Plus Azathioprine 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Zainab Kh. Abbas Taghreed F. Zaidan Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is an immunological disorder associated with chronic inflammatory process of several unspecific regions of gastrointestinal tract but frequently detected in the terminal Ilium and proximal colon or both. This disease frequently presented with various oral manifestations as a consequence of inflammatory process of the disease, nutritional deficiency or medications side effects. Several therapeutic approaches have been developed for CD management that are targeting the inflammatory process and directed at controlling the host immune response. Immunosuppressants such as Azathioprine and anti-TNF α agents as well as the combination of them have been widely used as an effective therapeutic modality with a better chance of achieving clinical remission and decrease the risk of future complications. Subjects, Materials, and Methods: Seventy-five subjects were incorporated in this study; fifty subjects presented with moderate to severe CD that were subdivided into two subgroups treated with different therapeutic modalities( Azathioprine monotherapy and Combination of anti TNF-α biological agent (Infliximab) plus Azathioprine), while other twenty-five were age and gender matched healthy control subjects. Body mass index (BMI) of all participants was determined by weight (kg)\ high (m2). Oral cavity of each patient was examined for the presence of oral manifestations. Blood and saliva samples were gained from each subject enrolled in this study and salivary flow rate (ml\min) was measured for those participants, then these samples were centrifuged and the supernatants frizzed for subsequent oxidative stress and antioxidants biomarkers assessment. Results: The means of BMI and salivary flow rate were significantly higher in combination treated group than Azathioprine treated group. Fungal infection was the main oral findings that observed among Crohn's patients on combination therapy compared with those on Azathioprine monotherapy. Assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity revealed that the means of serum and saliva Malondialdehyde (MDA) were highly significantly higher in Azathioprine treated group than combination treated group, while Vitamin E (VE) level showed significant reduction in Azathioprine Crohn's group as compared to combination treated group. Significant negative linear correlation was found between MDA level in serum and saliva with duration of treatment, while highly significant positive correlation was detected between VE levels and duration of treatment. Conclusions: Oxidative stress was increased with reduced antioxidant level in both groups of Crohn's patients. Treatment with Combination therapy approved to be effective in controlling oxidative tissue damage and enhanced antioxidants system in Crohn's patients better than Azathioprine monotherapy. Fungal infection was the most predominant oral manifestations among Crohn's patients on combination therapy as a result of concomitant immunosuppressive effect that accounted for reduced immune response to opportunistic infections. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Salivary Lactoferrin and pH Levels and Their Correlation with Gingivitis and Severity of Chronic Periodontitis (Part: 2) 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Haider J. Talib Maha A Ahmed Background: Periodontal diseases are bacterial infections of the gingiva, bone and attachment fibers that support the teeth and hold them in the jaw. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein and it is the main component of neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes that activated during inflammatory processes such as Periodontal diseases Aims of the study: Determine the salivary levels of Lactoferrin and pH and their correlations with clinical periodontal parameters(Plaque Index , Gingival Index , Bleeding on Probing , Probing Pocket Depth , and Clinical Attachment Level ) and the correlation between Lactoferrin with potential of hydrogen ion (PH) ,flow rate and α-amylase of study groups that consisted of patients had gingivitis and patients had chronic periodontitis with different severities(mild ,moderate ,severe) and control group . Materials and Methods: Salivary Lactoferrin and pH levels were measured from 75 males, age ranged (30-45) years old, that divided into study groups (group of 45 chronic periodontitis patients with different severities which sub-grouped into (Mild=15, Moderate=15 and Severe=15), group of 15 patients with gingivitis) and control group comprised 15 subjects had clinically healthy periodontium. Results: The levels of salivary Lactoferrin in patients had severe chronic periodontitis were the highest followed by moderate chronic periodontitis then the mild chronic periodontitis then patients had gingivitis. Highly significant differences were demonstrated among the control, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis subgroups and between each pairs of chronic periodontitis subgroups. pH increased in gingivitis group and decreased in chronic periodontitis group with its different severities. Highly significant strong positive correlations between Lactoferrin with clinical periodontal parameters at all groups and subgroups. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that salivary Lactoferrin can help to monitor the progression of the periodontal disease. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Determination of the Greater Palatine Foramen Position Among Iraqi Population 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Weaam H. Abdullah Ali H Abbas Alhussaini Background: The use of the cone beam computed tomography for analysing the position of the greater palatine foramen in relation to various anatomical landmarks is crucial in dentistry. The aims of the current study, firstly is to determine the greater palatine foramen position in relation to various anatomical landmarks by using cone beam computed tomography and secondly is to make a comparison of the measurements according to side, gender, and age. Materials and methods: This prospective study included 60 Iraqi patients (28males and 32 females) who selected according to availability of Inclusion criteria, which include age range (21 - 60 years), with no dentofacial deformities or pathological lesion at the maxilla. All patients had informed consent of this study. Measurements were taken for the distance from the greater palatine foramen to the pterygoid hamulas of sphenoid bone in sagittal view and from greater palatine foramen to alveolar ridge in the axial view by using cone beam computed tomography. Results: The average distances of the greater palatine foramen to the pterygoid hamulus and alveolar ridge were 9.16 ±1.14 mm and 5.16 ± 0.84 mm respectively, there was no significant difference of distance according to side, gender although the distances higher in male more than female, but there was significant difference according to age. Conclution: The use of cone beam computed tomography could prevent the complications of procedures carried out in the region of greater palatine foramen. The average distances from the greater palatine foramen to the alveolar ridge and pterygoid hamulus were statistically not significantly differ according to side, gender, but there was significant difference according to age. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Salivary Total Antioxidants Capacity Levels of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis in Comparison to Healthy Control 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Baidaa T. Ali Maha Sh. Mahmood Background: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is greatly prevalent condition of inflammatory behavior. Salivary biomarker total antioxidants capacity (T-AOC) status, may be related to both periodontal condition and oral hygiene. Aims of the study: To assess the level of salivary T-AOC of patients with chronic periodontitis in comparison to healthy control and to correlate between the level of this marker with the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)). Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects of males and females with an age ranged between (35-55) years were participated in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: the first group was CP group that consisted of fifty-five subjects and the second group consisted of thirty-five subjects as control group with healthy periodontium and both groups systemically healthy. The whole unstimulated salivary samples were collected, and then periodontal evaluation that including the assessment of clinical periodontal parameter (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD, and CAL) were done for all participants. Enzyme-linked immune– sorbent assay (ELISA) used to determine the level of T-AOC in saliva. Results: The two studied groups showed a highly significant difference regarding the salivary level of T-AOC, and it revealed that the mean value of salivary level of T-AOC was statistically lower in CP group than the control group. Regarding Pearson Correlation Coefficient, this study revealed that there is strong negative correlations between clinical periodontal parameters (GI, BOP, PPD, and CAL) with salivary level of T-AOC. Conclusion: Salivary T-AOC could be used as a reliable marker of chronic periodontitis activity 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Waterpipe Smoking Effect on Clinical Periodontal Parameters, Salivary Flow Rate and Salivary pH in Chronic ‎Periodontitis Patient 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Saif Mohammed T. Al Mufti Saif S. Saliem Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has become common especially among young people, Waterpipe smoking misconcepted as a safer mean of smoking, so in this study we will highlight the effect of Waterpipe smoking ‎on periodontal and oral health.‎ Materials and method. The selected ‎‎‎100 male subjects of 30-40 years, ‎categorized into 4 groups (each group ‎‎25 subject): Waterpipe smoker ‎with ‎healthy periodontium, ‎Waterpipe smoker ‎‎with chronic periodontitis, Non-‎‎smoker ‎with healthy periodontium and Non-smoker ‎with chronic periodontitis. Whole ‎unstimulated ‎saliva was collected. Clinical measurements: plaque ‎index, ‎gingival index, ‎bleeding on probing, salivary flow ‎rate ‎and ‎salivary pH were recorded‎.‎ ‎ Results. In the healthy groups: plaque index and salivary pH were ‎higher in smokers than non-smokers but with no ‎significant difference (P>0.05). While gingival index and salivary flow rate were ‎higher in smoker than non-smokers and with significant ‎difference (p<0.05). In the chronic periodontitis groups: plaque index, gingival index and salivary flow rate ‎were higher in the non-smokers than smokers and with ‎significant difference (p<0.05). While salivary pH was ‎higher in the non-smokers than smokers but with no ‎significant difference (P>0.05). Correlation between ‎weekly smoking hours with pH and salivary flow rate, in the ‎smoker healthy groups, showed ‎significant negative correlation, while plaque index showed ‎significant positive correlation at (p<0.05). But in the smokers with chronic periodontitis, only gingival index ‎significantly correlated with weekly smoking hours. Conclusion. Waterpipe smoking has a detrimental effect on the periodontium and overall oral health. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans to Selected Nanoparticles (in Vitro Study) 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Farah A Al-Bazaz Nada J Radhi Kadhim Abed Hubeatir Background: Nanoparticles are clusters of atoms in a size range from (1-100) nm. Nano dentistry creates amazing useful structures from individual atoms or molecules (nanoparticles), which provides a new alternative and a possibly superior strategy in prevention and treatment of dental caries through management of dental plaque biofilms. The aim of the study was to test the sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans to different concentrations of hydroxyapatite and iron oxide nanoparticles suspension solutions, in comparison to chlorhexidine, and de-ionized water, in vitro. Materials and methods: Agar well technique was applied to test the sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans to different concentrations of hydroxyapatite and iron oxide nanoparticles compared with chlorhexidine 0.2% as a control positive and de-ionized water as control negative. Zone of inhibitions which is clear zone of no growth of the bacteria were measured across the diameter of each well, no zone indicated a complete resistance of bacteria to the agents. Results: Values of mean of inhibition zone for all concentrations of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were zero. While for iron oxide nanoparticles, they were zero until reaching the last three concentrations, in which there was a respective increase with a highly significant difference between groups (p>0.01). When making multiple comparisons of the inhibition zones of iron oxide nanoparticles between groups, findings showed that the inhibition zones of 17%, 20% and 22.5% of iron oxide nanoparticles were more than all other concentrations that had no inhibition zones with a significant difference (p>0.05). There was a highly significant difference between each concentration of hydroxyapatite and iron oxide nanoparticles with chlorhexidine and de-ionized water (p>0.01). Conclusion: Streptococcus mutans were not sensitive to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, as there was a complete resistance for the agent. While for iron oxide nanoparticles, Streptococcus mutans were sensitive to 17.5%, 20% and 22.5% and sensitivity increased with the increase in concentration with a statistically highly significant difference and this indicates an antibacterial activity of this material. Keywords: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, Iron oxide nanoparticles, streptococcus mutans, Inhibition zone. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2018; 30(1): 69-75) 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of Mother-Infant Bonding on Periodontal Health Status in the Postpartum Period 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Rula Nabeel Issa Ban Sahib Diab Background: Mother-infant bonding is an important psychological step postpartum and disturbed relationship may carry dramatic consequences as a psychological disorder which may affect the periodontal health of the mother. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the postpartum Mother-infant bonding on their periodontal condition. Materials and Methods: Mothers in the postpartum period with age range 20-35 years were subjected to postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Periodontal health status was assessed by measuring probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Results: The mean values of both probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were higher among disordered mothers than mothers with normal bonding relationship. The mean percentage of PPD according to different thresholds of severity and CAL (1-2 mm) was higher among the disordered mothers. Conclusion: Mother-infant bonding disorder could influence the periodontal health status of the mother. 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gingival Condition and Enamel Defect Among Secondary School Female Students in Kirkuk City/Iraq 2018-04-02T18:27:34+00:00 Jihan A. Ibrahim Baydaa Hussien Background: Gingivitis is one of the most common and widely spread oral diseases in adolescents after dental caries occur in both developed and developing countries. Dental plaque is the main etiological factor of gingivitis. Another oral problem is enamel defect. The aim of this study was to estimate the oral hygiene (dental plaque), and determine the prevalence and severity of gingivitis and enamel defects among 16-17 years old secondary school female students in urban areas of Kirkuk city/Iraq. Materials and methods: A representative sample included in this study consisted of 750 secondary school female students distributed into 387 for the age sixteen and 363 for the age seventeen, they were selected randomly from different female secondary schools in the urban areas of Kirkuk city. Dental plaque was assessed using plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964). The gingival health condition was assessed using gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963), while, enamel anomalies was determined following the criteria of WHO. Results: The mean value of plaque index for the total sample was 0.92±0.02. The prevalence of gingivitis was (88.53%) and the mean value of gingival index was 0.90±0.02. Regarding age, the mean value of gingival index increased with age with statistically no significant difference (P>0.05). There was a strong positive and statistically highly significant correlation between plaque and gingival indices for total sample and for both ages (P<0.01). Regarding enamel defects, the prevalence of enamel anomalies among the total sample was 40.27% and diffused opacity was the most prevalent type of enamel anomalies, while, the least prevalent type was diffused opacity and hypoplasia. The lower 1st molars were the most affected teeth by enamel defects. Conclusion: In present study, the high prevalence of gingivitis among secondary school females indicated the need for either a school or public educational programs to improve the knowledge and attitude towards proper oral hygiene practices 2018-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##