Time of Emergence of Permanent Teeth and Impact of Nutritional Status among 4-15 Years Old Children and Teenagers in Basrah City /Iraq

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Hiyam S. Ahmed Zeyneb A. Al-Dahan

Abstract

Background: The timing of eruption of permanent teeth is of considerable importance to the dental health planning for diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic measures for children and teenagers. The purposes of this study were to determine timing of maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth emergence (except third molars) and to evaluate the effect nutritional status by anthropometric measures on the eruption time of permanent teeth, investigations had been done according to jaw and gender variations.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among four to fifteen years old children and teenagers from kindergarten and schools in Basrah city in the south region of Iraq. The total sample composed of 1807 children and teenagers that were collected randomly from kindergartens, primary and secondary schools in Basrah city.
The data were statistically analyzed by using probit model in order to compute the median 5th and 95th percentile range of emergence. Athropmetric measures of height and weight were used for the purpose of assessment of nutritional status. The indices include: Weight for age, Height for age and Weight for height; each was considered as in term of standard deviation score (Z – score) as primary indicator of underweight, stunting and wasting respectively. The statistical significance of differences in mean of a normally distributed variable (nutritional indices z score) between 2 groups was assessed by independent samples t-test.
Results: The results showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the timing of maxillary and mandibular teeth emergence in girls and boys, with earlier emergence in girls , also the mandibular teeth emerge before their maxillary opposing teeth in both sexes except for premolars .
The prevalence of malnutrition according to height for age, weight for age, and weight for height nutritional status indicators were found to be 7.4 %, 3.7 % and 1.5% respectively.
The results showed that among well-nourished children and teenagers described by height for age nutritional status indicator, most teeth were significantly erupted earlier than stunted except the lateral incisor which erupted earlier in stunted boys than well-nourished boys but the difference was not significantly accepted. The greatest difference of median eruption age of permanent teeth between well -nourished and stunted found in girls in the second molar tooth.
Conclusions: Records indicated that the Iraqi children exhibit variation in their times of permanent teeth emergence when compared with other studies, and among well-nourished children and teenaged described by height for age nutritional status indicator, most teeth were significantly erupted earlier than stunted children and teenagers.

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Orthodontics, Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry